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ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Pesticide Formulations and Application Systems: Seventh Volume
By
GB Beestman
GB Beestman
1
Senior Research Specialist, Formulations
,
Monsanto Agricultural Company
,
St. Louis, MO 63167
;
symposium chairman and co-editor
Search for other works by this author on:
DIB Vander Hooven
DIB Vander Hooven
2
The Andersons
,
Maumee, OH 43537
;
symposium co-chairman and co-editor
Search for other works by this author on:
ISBN-10:
0-8031-0970-9
ISBN:
978-0-8031-0970-4
No. of Pages:
245
Publisher:
ASTM International
Publication date:
1987

In 1974 the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) adopted regulations pertaining to the safety of employees handling pesticides for agricultural uses and entering fields that might have pesticide residues. The regulations mandated that closed systems be developed for handling toxicity Category One liquid pesticides. While the regulations contained a general definition of closed systems, more specific criteria were not developed until some time later. The requirement for use of closed systems has been in place for several years, and debate continues over their usefulness. This paper reviews the development of California closed system criteria and the implementation problems encountered.

1.
Maddy
,
K. T.
, “
Occupational Illnesses Due to Pesticides in California in 1973
,” Report HS-040,
California Department of Food and Agriculture
, Sacramento,
03
1974
.
2.
Carman
,
G. E.
and
Metcalf
,
R. L.
, “
Safe Handling of Parathion, TEPP, and Other Organic Phosphorous Insecticides with Reference to Use on Citrus in California
,”
Citrus Leaves
,
10
1951
.
3.
Akesson
,
N. B.
,
Yates
,
W. E.
, and
Boos
,
S. W.
, “
Proposal to Evaluate and Provide Design Criteria for Improvement of Agricultural Chemical Handling and Mixing Systems
,” Reports (4) on Contract 4271,
Agricultural Engineering Department, University of California
, Davis, March, June, and Nov. 1976 and Dec. 1977.
4.
Kahn
,
C.
, “
Evaluation of Performance of Closed Systems for Liquid Pesticide Transfer That Were Commercially Available in August 1977
,”
California Department of Food and Agriculture
,
Sacramento
,
09
1977
.
5.
Edmiston
,
S.
, “
Exposure of Persons While Using the Chemrinse™ System
,”
Official Memorandum, California Department of Food and Agriculture
,
Sacramento
,
03
1986
.
6.
Betts
,
W. A.
, “
Corporations and the Closed System Regulations
,”
California Department of Food and Agriculture
,
Sacramento
,
07
1977
.
7.
Knaak
,
J. B.
,
Jackson
,
T.
,
Fredrickson
,
A. S.
,
Riveria
,
L.
,
Maddy
,
K. T.
, and
Akesson
,
N. B.
, “
Monitoring of Pesticide Application Workers: II—Blood Cholinesterase Activity and Dialkyl Phosphate Metabolite Levels in Urine of Workers Using Closed Mixing and Loading Systems in California
,”
California Department of Food and Agriculture
,
Sacramento
,
10
1978
.
8.
Betts
,
W. A.
, “
Guidelines for Interpreting Pesticide Label Statements for Protective Clothing/Equipment etc.
,” Bulletin PE 510-012 (Rev. 7-77),
California Department of Food and Agriculture
,
Sacramento
,
07
1977
.
9.
Brazelton
,
R. W.
,
Akesson
,
N. B.
, and
Maddy
,
K. T.
, “
Closed System Update
,”
Agricultural Engineering Department, University of California
,
Davis
,
01
1980
.
10.
Hoiland
,
C.
, “
Reduction of Mixer/Loader Pesticide Poisoning by Using a Closed Mixing System…Per California Administrative Code Title 3, Chapter 4, Subchapter 1, Group 2, Article 23, Section 2478(d)
,”
Petition to the California Office of Administrative Law by the Central California Farmers Association
,
Dinuba
,
11
1981
.
11.
Closed Systems: Pesticide Safety Information Series A-3
,” Report HS-713,
California Department of Food and Agriculture
, Sacramento,
10
1985
.
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