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ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Hazardous and Industrial Solid Waste Testing and Disposal: Sixth Volume
By
D Lorenzen
D Lorenzen
1
Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources
,
Harrisburg, PA 17112
;
cochairman Colorado Springs symposium and coeditor
.
Search for other works by this author on:
RA Conway
RA Conway
2
Union Carbide Corporation
,
South Charleston, WV 25303
;
cochairman Alexandria, Egypt symposium and coeditor
.
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LP Jackson
LP Jackson
3
Western Research Institute
,
Laramie, WY 82071
;
coeditor
.
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A Hamza
A Hamza
4
Alexandria University
,
Alexandria,
Egypt
;
cochairman Alexandria, Egypt symposium and coeditor
.
Search for other works by this author on:
CL Perket
CL Perket
5
Environmental Engineering and Management, Limited
,
Minneapolis, MN 55435
;
cochairman Colorado Springs symposium and coeditor
.
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ISBN-10:
0-8031-0931-8
ISBN:
978-0-8031-0931-5
No. of Pages:
481
Publisher:
ASTM International
Publication date:
1986

This paper presents a radically new approach for evaluating hazardous waste leachability. In the past, leachability has been measured through conductance of laboratory leaching tests, either batch or column, using experimental conditions that attempt to simulate field conditions. An approach is proposed in which measured intrinsic properties of a waste are used in mathematical models to infer the long-term leachability.

To provide background information, laboratory leaching tests are reviewed with emphasis on interpretation of the results. It is argued that results of bench-scale tests are difficult to scale up to field disposal conditions and that they do not lend themselves to extrapolation over time.

Leaching from wastes takes place via solubilization of contaminants inside the matrix and transport through the matrix pore system to the surrounding aqueous solution. Intrinsic properties that determine leaching rates can be categorized as chemical or transport phenomenon. Chemical properties include those factors that determine a contaminant's solubility, for example, chemical speciation, precipitation, adsorption, kinetics of reaction, buffering capacity, and so forth. Transport properties include structure of the pore system, factors affecting diffusion of ions in the pores, and hydraulic conductivity. Laboratory methods to measure these properties are briefly described.

A mathematical model, developed to predict leaching of toxic metals from solidified wastes under acidic conditions, is described. The model uses measured properties of wastes to predict leaching rates under a variety of conditions. Verification experiments are presented and the merits and limitations of the model for long-term predictions are discussed.

1.
Côté
,
P. L.
, “
Evaluation of the Long Term Stability of Solidified Wastes
,” presented at a
Workshop on Environmental Assessment of Waste Stabilization/Solidification
, Organized by the
Alberta Environmental Centre
,
Vegreville, Alberta, Canada
, 21–22 Nov. 1983.
2.
Dodd
,
D. J. R.
,
Golomb
,
A.
,
Chaw
,
H. R.
, and
Chartier
,
D.
, “
A Comparative Field and Laboratory Study of Fly Ash Leaching Characteristics
,” presented at the
1st ASTM Symposium on Hazardous Solid Waste Testing
,
Fort Lauderdale, FL
,
1981
.
3.
Environmental Laboratory (Waterways Experiment Station)
, “
Field Investigation of Contaminant Loss from Chemically Stabilized Industrial Sludge
,” EPA-600/52-81-163,
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
,
Washington, DC
,
1981
.
4.
Environmental Laboratory (Waterways Experiment Station)
, “
Investigation of STABLEX® Material Emplaced at West Thurrock Facility, England
,”
Draft Report
,
U.S. EPA, Office of Solid Waste
, Washington, DC,
1983
.
5.
U.S., EPA
, “
Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste
,”
Office of Water and Waste Management, Report
SW-846,
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
, Washington, DC,
08
1980
.
6.
Ham
,
R. K.
,
Anderson
,
M. A.
,
Stegmann
,
R.
, and
Stanforth
,
R.
, “
Comparison of three Waste Leaching Tests
,” EPA-600/2-79-071,
Industrial Environmental Laboratory, U.S. EPA
,
Washington, DC
,
1979
.
7.
Lowenbach
,
W.
, “
Compilation and Evaluation of Leaching Test Methods
,” EPA-60/2-78-095,
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
, Washington, DC,
1978
.
8.
Côté
,
P. L.
and
Constable
,
T. W.
, “
Evaluation of Experimental Conditions in Batch Leaching Procedures
,”
Resources and Conservation
, Vol.
9
,
1982
, pp. 59-73.
9.
Mendel
,
J. E.
,
Nelson
,
R. D.
,
Turlitte
,
R. P.
,
Gray
,
W. J.
, and
Merzer
,
M. D.
, “
A State-of-the-Art Review of Materials Properties of Nuclear Waste Forms
,” PNL-3802 
Pacific Northwest Laboratory
,
1981
.
10.
American Resources Corporation (ARC) and Environmental Engineering and Management (EEM)
, “
Technical Evaluation of the USEPA Extraction Procedure
,” report prepared for the
Lead Industries Association and Cadmium Council
,
1984
.
11.
Côté
,
P. L.
and
Constable
,
T. W.
, “
Development of a Canadian Data Base on Waste Leachability
,”
Hazardous and Industrial Solid Waste Testing: Second Symposium
, STP 805,
Conway
R. D.
and
Gulledge
W. P.
, Eds.,
American Society for Testing and Materials
,
Philadelphia
,
1983
, pp. 53-66.
12.
Conner
,
J. P.
, “
Considerations on Selecting Chemical Fixation and Solidification Alternatives—The Engineered Approach
,”
Second Annual Conference of Applied Research and Practice on Municipal and Industrial Waste
,
Madison, WI
,
09
09
1979
.
13.
Environmental Laboratory (Waterways Experiment Station)
,
Guide to the Disposal of Chemically Stabilized and Solidified Waste
, Publication SW-872,
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
,
Washington, DC
,
1980
.
14.
Côté
,
P. L.
and
Hamilton
,
D. P.
, “
Leachability Comparison of Four Hazardous Waste Solidification Processes
,”
Proceedings of the 38th Annual Purdue Industrial Waste Conference
,
West Lafayette, IN
, 10–12 May 1983.
15.
Bartos
,
M. J.
and
Palermo
,
M. R.
, “
Physical and Engineering Properties of Hazardous Wastes and Sludges
,” U.S. EPA-600/2-77-139,
Environmental Protection Agency
,
Washington, DC
,
1977
.
16.
Van der Sloot
,
H. A.
and
Wijstra
,
J.
, “
Short and Long Term Effects in the Leaching of Trace Elements from Stabilized Waste Products
,” presented at the
Fifth International Ocean Disposal Symposium
,
Corvallis, OR
, 10–14 Sept. 1984.
17.
Côté
,
P. L.
, “
Contaminant Leaching from Cement-Based Waste Forms under Acidic Conditions
,” Ph.D. thesis,
McMaster University
,
02
1986
.
18.
Bruce
,
R. B.
,
Pinchin
,
P. J.
,
Lakshmanan
,
V. I.
,
Berry
,
E. E.
,
Stott
,
W. R.
, and
Witte
,
M. K.
, “
Physical and Chemical Properties of Chemically Fixated Uranium Mine-Mill Tailings
,”
Ontario Research Foundation
,
05
1981
.
19.
Fraser
,
J. L.
and
Lum
,
K. R.
, “
The Availability of Elements of Environmental Importance in Incinerated Sludge Ash
,”
Environmental Science and Technology
 0013-936X, Vol.
17
, No.
1
,
1983
, pp. 52-54.
20.
Jennings
,
A. A.
,
Kirkner
,
D. J.
, and
Theis
,
T. L.
, “
Multicomponent Equilibrium Chemistry in Groundwater Quality Models
,”
Water Resources Research
, Vol.
18
, No.
4
,
1982
, pp. 1089-1096.
21.
Westall
,
J.
,
Zachary
,
J. L.
, and
Morel
,
F.
, “
MINEQL, A Computer Program for the Calculation of Chemical Equilibrium Composition of Aqueous Systems
,” Technical Note 18,
Ralph M Parsons Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
, Cambridge, MA,
1976
.
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