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ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Case Histories Involving Fatigue and Fracture Mechanics
By
CM Hudson
CM Hudson
1
NASA-Langley Research Center
,
Hampton, VA
;
cochairman and coeditor
.
Search for other works by this author on:
TP Rich
TP Rich
2
Bucknell University
,
Lewisburg, PA 17837
;
cochairman and coeditors
Search for other works by this author on:
ISBN-10:
0-8031-0485-5
ISBN:
978-0-8031-0485-3
No. of Pages:
435
Publisher:
ASTM International
Publication date:
1986

Cracks in nozzle corners at the pressure boundary of nuclear reactors have been frequently observed in service. These cracks tend to form with radial orientations with respect to the nozzle central axis and are believed to be initiated by thermal shock. However, their growth is believed to be primarily due to a steady plus a fluctuating internal pressure. Due to the impracticality of fracture testing of full-scale models, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory instituted the use of an intermediate test vessel (ITV) for use in fracture testing which had the same wall thickness and nozzle size as the prototype but significantly reduced overall length and diameter. In order to determine whether or not these ITVs could provide realistic data for full-scale reactor vessels, laboratory models of full-scale boiling water reactors and ITVs were constructed and tested. After briefly reviewing the laboratory testing and correlating results with service experience, results obtained will be used to draw some general conclusions regarding the stable growth of nonplanar cracks with curved crack fronts which are the most common precursors to fracture of pressure vessel components near junctures. Use of linear elastic fracture mechanics is made in determining stress-intensity distributions along the crack fronts.

1.
Smith
,
C. W.
and
Peters
,
W. H.
, “
Prediction of Flaw Shapes and Stress Intensity Distributions in 3D Problems by the Frozen Stress Method
,”
Preprints of the Sixth International Conference on Experimental Stress Analysis
,
Munich
,
09
1978
, pp. 861-864.
2.
Oppel
,
G.
, “
Photoelastic Investigation of Three Dimensional Stress and Strain Conditions
,” NACA TM 824 (Translation by J. Vanier),
1937
.
3.
Smith
,
C. W.
,
McGowan
,
J. J.
, and
Peters
,
W. H.
,
Journal of Experimental Mechanics
, Vol.
18
, No.
8
,
08
1978
, pp. 309-325.
4.
Irwin
,
G. R.
, “
Measurement Challenges in Fracture Mechanics
,”
William Murray Lecture, SESA Fall Meeting
,
Indianapolis
,
10
1973
.
5.
Srawley
,
J. R.
,
Jones
,
M. H.
, and
Gross
,
B.
, “
Experimental Determination of the Dependence of Crack Extension Force on Crack Length for a Single Edge Notch Tensile Specimen
,” NASA-TN-D2396,
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
,
05
1964
.
6.
Smith
,
C. W.
,
McGowan
,
J. J.
, and
Jolles
,
M.
,
Journal of Experimental Mechanics
, Vol.
16
, No.
5
,
05
1976
, pp. 188-193.
7.
Sih
,
G. C.
and
Kassir
,
M.
,
Journal of Applied Mechanics
, Vol.
33
, No.
3
,
09
1966
, pp. 601-611.
8.
Sih
,
G. C.
and
Liebowitz
,
H.
, “
Mathematical Theories of Brittle Fracture
,”
Fracture VII Mathematical Fundamentals
,
1968
, pp. 68-188.
9.
Smith
,
C. W.
,
Olaosebikan
,
O.
, and
Epstein
,
J. S.
, “
An Analytical-Experimental Estimation of Elastic Linear Zone for Photoelastic Mode I SIF Extraction
” (in press),
International Journal of Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics
,
1985
.
10.
Hellen
,
T. K.
and
Dowling
,
A. R.
,
International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping
, Vol.
3
,
1975
, pp. 57-74.
11.
Reynen
,
J.
, “
On the Use of Finite Elements in the Fracture Analysis of Pressure Vessel Components
,” ASME Paper No. 75-PVP-20,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
,
06
1975
.
12.
Rashid
,
Y. R.
and
Gilman
,
J. D.
in
Proceedings
,
First International Conference on Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology
, Vol.
4
,
Reactor Pressure Vessels
, Part G, Steel Pressure Vessels,
09
1971
, pp. 193-213.
13.
Besuner
,
P. M.
,
Cohen
L. M.
, and
McLean
,
J. L.
, “
The Effects of Location, Thermal Stress and Residual Stress on Corner Cracks in Nozzles with Cladding
,”
Transactions
,
Fourth International Conference on Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology
, Vol.
G
,
Structural Analysis of Steel Reactor Pressure Vessels
, Paper No. G 4/5,
08
1977
.
14.
Schmitt
,
W.
,
Bartholome
,
G.
,
Gröstad
,
A.
, and
Miksch
,
M.
,
International Journal of Fracture
, Vol.
12
, No.
3
,
06
1976
, pp. 381-390.
15.
Broekhoven
,
M. J. G.
,
Proceedings
,
Third International Conference on Pressure Vessel Technology
, Part II,
Materials and Fabrication
,
04
1977
, pp. 839-852.
16.
Sommer
,
E.
,
Hodulak
,
L.
, and
Kordisch
,
H.
,
Journal of Pressure Technology, Transactions
, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Vol.
99
, Series J, No.
1
,
02
1977
, pp. 106-111.
17.
Hodulak
,
L.
, “
Development of Part Through Cracks and Implications for the Assessment of the Significance of Flaws
,” Paper No. C89/78,
Proceedings
,
Institution of Mechanical Engineers
,
1978
, pp. 115-120.
18.
Hodulak
,
L.
,
Kordisch
,
H.
,
Kunzelmann
,
S.
, and
Sommer
,
E.
,
International Journal of Fracture
, Vol.
14
,
1978
, pp. R-35-R-38.
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