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ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Blended Cements
By
G Frohnsdorff
G Frohnsdorff
1
National Bureau of Standards
,
Washington, DC 20234
;
symposium chairman and editor
.
Search for other works by this author on:
ISBN-10:
0-8031-0453-7
ISBN:
978-0-8031-0453-2
No. of Pages:
176
Publisher:
ASTM International
Publication date:
1986

As part of research to develop a highly durable concrete container for radioactive waste disposal in chloride and sulfate bearing granite groundwaters, a variety of cement pastes were studied. A sulfate resisting portland cement was used with various replacement levels of Class F fly ash and pelletized blast furnace slag at a water to solids ratio (W/S) = 0.36. Blends with fly ash, slag, and silica fume were also combined with a super water reducer at W/S = 0.25. Results are presented for strength development, permeability to water, and pore size distribution after 7, 28, 91, and 182 days moist curing. As a direct measure of durability, after 91 days moist curing, paste prisms were immersed in both de-ionized water and a synthetic chloride and sulfate bearing groundwater at 70°C.

While all three supplementary cementing materials (mineral admixtures) reduced ultimate permeabilities, silica fume was more effective in reducing permeability at early ages. Silica fume was also the most effective in reducing calcium hydroxide contents of the pastes while slag was the least effective; only reducing calcium hydroxide levels by dilution of the portland cement. From preliminary analysis, there does not appear to be a way of accurately predicting permeability from porosity or pore size parameters alone.

1.
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,
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in
Proceedings
,
Fifth International Symposium on Concrete Technology
,
Monterrey
,
1981
, pp. 263-288.
2.
Page
,
C. L.
,
Short
,
N. R.
, and
El Tarras
,
A.
,
Cement and Concrete Research
 0008-8846, Vol.
11
,
1981
, pp. 295-406.
3.
Emery
,
J. J.
in
Extending Aggregate Resources
, ASTM STP 774,
American Society for Testing and Materials
,
Philadelphia
,
1982
, pp. 95-118.
4.
Guyot
,
R.
,
Ranc
,
R.
, and
Varizat
,
A.
, “
Comparison of the Resistance to Sulfate Solutions and Seawater on Different Portland Cements With or Without Secondary Constituents
,”
American Concrete Institute
, SP-79, Vol.
1
, pp. 453-469.
5.
Mehta
,
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in
Proceedings
,
Fifth International Symposium on Concrete Technology
,
Monterrey
,
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, pp. 35-50.
6.
Sturrup
,
V. R.
,
Hooton
,
R. D.
, and
Clendenning
,
T. G.
, “
Durability of Fly Ash Concrete
,”
American Concrete Institute
, SP-79, Vol.
1
,
1983
, pp. 71-86.
7.
Dunstan
,
E. R.
,
Cement, Concrete, and Aggregates
, Vol.
3
, No.
2
,
1981
, pp. 101-104.
8.
Preese
,
C. M.
, “
Corrosion of Steel in Concrete
,” SKBF/KBS Technical Report 82-19, Stockholm,
1982
.
9.
Feldman
,
R. F.
in
Proceedings
,
Effects of Fly Ash Incorporation in Cement and Concrete
,
Materials Research Society
,
1981
, pp. 124-133.
10.
Manmohan
,
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and
Mehta
,
P. K.
,
Cement, Concrete, and Aggregates
, Vol.
3
, No.
1
,
1981
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11.
Mills
,
R. H.
, “
The Permeability of Concrete for Reactor Containment Vessels
,”
Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada Report
INFO-0111,
1983
.
12.
Gjorv
,
O. E.
and
Loland
,
K. E.
in
Durability of Building Materials and Components
, ASTM STP 691,
American Society for Testing and Materials
,
Philadelphia
,
1980
, pp. 410-422.
13.
Nyame
,
B.
and
Illston
,
J. M.
in
Proceedings
,
Seventh International Congress on the Chemistry of Cements
,
Paris
, Vol.
3
,
1980
, pp. VI-181-185.
14.
Roy
,
D. M.
and
Parker
,
K. M.
, “
Microstructures and Properties of Granulated Slag-Portland Cement Blends at Normal and Elevated Temperatures
,”
American Concrete Institute
, SP-79, Vol.
1
.,
1983
, pp. 397-414.
15.
Feldman
,
R. F.
,
Journal of the American Ceramic Society
 0002-7820, Vol.
67
, No.
1
,
1984
, pp. 30-33.
16.
Diamond
,
S.
,
Cement and Concrete Research
 0008-8846, Vol.
13
,
1983
, pp. 459-464.
17.
Method of Test for Flow of Grout Mixtures (Flow Cone Method)
,” CRDC-C79-58,
US Army Corps of Engineers
(also Canadian Standards Association CAN3-A23.2-18, Clause 3).
18.
Kantro
,
D. L.
,
Cement, Concrete, and Aggregates
, Vol.
2
, No.
2
,
1980
, pp. 95-105.
19.
MacInnis
,
C.
and
Nathawad
,
Y. R.
,
Durability of Building Materials and Components
, ASTM STP 691,
American Society for Testing and Materials
,
Philadelphia
,
1980
, pp. 485-496.
20.
Marsh
,
B. K.
, “
Relationships Between Engineering Properties and Microstructural Characteristics of Hardened Cement Paste Containing Pulverized Fuel Ash as a Partial Cement Replacement
,” Ph.D. thesis,
The Hatfield Polytechnic
, U.K.,
02
1984
.
21.
Nyame
,
B.
and
Illston
,
J. M.
,
Magazine of Concrete Research
 0024-9831, Vol.
33
, No.
116
,
1981
, pp. 139-146.
22.
Feldman
,
R. F.
, “
Significance of Porosity Measurements on Blended Cement Performance
,”
American Concrete Institute
, SP-79, Vol.
1
,
1983
, pp. 415-433.
23.
D'ans
,
J.
and
Eick
,
H.
,
Zement-Kalk-Gips
 0044-3905 (in German), Vol.
7
,
1954
, pp. 449-459.
24.
Hooton
,
R. D.
and
Emery
,
J. J.
in
Proceedings
,
Seventh International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement
,
Paris
, Vol.
2
,
1980
, pp. III-43-47.
25.
Manmohan
,
D.
and
Mehta
,
P. K.
in
Proceedings
,
Seventh International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement
,
Paris
, Vol.
3
,
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, pp. VII-1-5.
26.
Goto
,
S.
and
Roy
,
D. M.
,
Cement and Concrete Research
 0008-8846, Vol.
11
,
1981
, pp. 575-579.
27.
Winslow
,
D. N.
and
Diamond
,
S.
,
Journal of Materials
 0022-2453, Vol.
5
,
1970
, pp. 564-585.
28.
Taylor
,
H. F. W.
,
Cement and Concrete Research
 0008-8846, Vol.
7
,
1977
, pp. 465-468.
29.
Feldman
,
R. F.
,
Cement Technology
, Vol.
3
, No.
1
,
1972
, pp. 5-14.
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