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ASTM Selected Technical Papers
The Pressuremeter and its Marine Applications: Second International Symposium
By
J-L Briaud
J-L Briaud
1Civil Engineering Department,
Texas A&M University
?
College Station, TX 77843 Symposium cochairman and editor
Search for other works by this author on:
JME Audibert
JME Audibert
2
Earth Technology Corporation
?
7020 Portwest Drive, Suite 150 Houston, TX 77024 Symposium cochairman and editor
Search for other works by this author on:
ISBN-10:
0-8031-0454-5
ISBN:
978-0-8031-0454-9
No. of Pages:
506
Publisher:
ASTM International
Publication date:
1985

The rules of design for vertically and horizontally loaded piles on the basis of pressuremeter test results are reviewed. The pressuremeter test considered is the one where the pressuremeter probe is inserted in a prebored hole. The rules are then evaluated on the basis of a series of well-documented vertical and horizontal pile load tests. The accuracy of the predictions is shown and recommendations are made for future use.

1.
Menard
.
L.
, “
Calcul de la Force Portante des Fondations sur la Base des Resultats des Essais Pressiometriques
,”
Sols-Soils
, No.
5
,
06
1963
.
2.
Menard
.
L.
, “
Calcul de la Force Portante des Fondations sur la Base des Resultats des Essais Pressiometriques, Seconde partie: Resultats Experimentaux et Conclusions
,”
Sols-Soils
, No.
6
,
09
1963
.
3.
Bagueline
,
F.
,
Jezequel
,
J. F.
and
Shields
,
D. H.
,
The Pressuremeter and Foundation Engineering
,
Transtech Publications
,
Rockport, Mass.
,
1978
.
4.
Bustamante
,
M.
and
Gianeselli
,
L.
, “
Prevision de la Capacite Portante des Pieux Isoles, sous Charge Verticale: Regles Pressiometriques et Penetrometriques
,”
Bull. Liaison Labo. P. et Ch.
113
, May–June 1981.
5.
Bustamante
,
M.
and
Gianeselli
L.
, “
Prevision de la Capacite Portante des pieux par la Methode Pressiometrique (Version 82)
,” Compte rendu de recherche F.A.E.R. 1.05.02.2, Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussees, en communication privee.
6.
Briaud
,
J. L.
,
Tucker
,
L. M.
, and
Olsen
,
R. S.
, “
Pressuremeter and Foundation Design
,” Volume
1
, Short Course Notes,
Civil Engineering, Texas A&M University
,
1985
.
7.
Briaud
,
J. L.
,
Anderson
,
J. S.
,
Tucker
,
L. M.
, and
Coyle
,
H. M.
, “
Measured and Predicted Response for 100 Piles
,”
Research Report
4981-1,
Civil Engineering, Texas A&M University
,
07
1985
.
8.
Baguelin
,
F.
, “
Rules of Foundation Design Using Selfboring Pressuremeter Test Results
,”
Symposium on the Pressuremeter and Its Marine Applications
,”
Editions Technip
,
Paris
,
1982
.
9.
Institut Francais du Petrole
,
Recommended Practice for Application of Pressuremeter Test Results to Designing of Offshore Foundation
,” Ref. 31763, Paris,
12
1983
.
10.
Briaud
,
J. L.
,
Tand
,
K. E.
, and
Funegard
,
E. G.
, “
Pressuremeter and Shallow Foundations on Stiff Clay
,”
Proceedings of the Session on Spread Foundations
,
Transportation Research Board Meeting
,
Washington
,
01
1986
.
11.
Briaud
,
J. L.
,
Noubani
,
A.
, and
Tucker
,
L. M.
, “
Correlations Between Pressuremeter Data and Other Soil Parameters
,”
Research Report
,
Civil Engineering Department, Texas A&M University
,
1985
.
12.
Meyerhof
,
G. G.
, “
Bearing Capacity and Settlement of Pile Foundations
,”
ASCE Geotechnical Engineering Journal
, Vol.
102
, GT3,
1976
.
13.
Coyle
,
H. M.
and
Castello
,
R.
, “
New Design Correlations for Piles in Sand
,”
ASCE Geotechnical Engineering Journal
, Vol.
107
, GT7,
1981
.
14.
Kulhawy
,
F. H.
, “
Limiting Tip and Side Resistance: Fact or Fallacy?
Analysis and Design of Pile Foundations
,
ASCE National Convention
,
San Francisco
,
10
1984
.
15.
Vesic
,
A. S.
, “
Expansion of Cavities in Infinite Soil Mass
,”
ASCE, Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering
, Vol.
98
, SM3,
1972
.
16.
Briaud
,
J. L.
,
Pacal
,
A. J.
, and
Shively
,
A. W.
, “
Powerline Foundation Design Using the Pressuremeter
,”
International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering
,
St. Louis
,
1984
.
17.
Engineers
Briaud
, “
Pressuremeter Test and Pile Capacity at Lock and Dam 2, Red River, Alexandria, Louisiana
,
Report to Corps of Engineers
,
Vicksburg District
,
06
1984
.
18.
Briaud Engineers
, “
Lackland Air Force Base Vertical and Lateral Drilled Shaft Load Test: Pressuremeter Testing
,”
Report to the U.S. Army Waterways Experiment Station
,
09
1982
.
19.
Davidson
,
R. R.
and
Bodine
,
D. G.
, “
Analysis and Verification of Louisiana Pile Foundation Design Based on Pressuremeter Results
,”
The Pressuremeter and Its Marine Applications: Second International Symposium
, ASTM, STP 950,
1986
.
20.
Briaud
,
J. L.
,
Tucker
,
L. M.
,
Lytton
,
R. L.
, and
Coyle
,
H. M.
, “
Behavior of Piles in Cohesionless Soils
,” Research Reort 4777,
Civil Engineering, Texas A&M University
,
09
1983
.
21.
Hansbo
,
S.
, “
Prediction of Load vs. settlement Curves for Friction Piles
,” Contribution to
Symposium on the Pressuremeter and Its Marine Applications
,
Editions Technip
,
Paris
,
1982
.
22.
Briaud
,
J. L.
,
Huff
,
L. G.
,
Tucker
,
L. M.
, and
Coyle
,
H. M.
, “
Evaluation of In Situ Test Methods for Vertically Loaded H Piles at Lock and Dam 26 Replacement Site
,”
Research Report
4690-1,
Civil Engineering, Texas A&M University
,
07
1984
.
23.
Briaud
,
J. L.
,
Lawson
,
W.
and
Tucker
,
L. M.
, “
Wave Equation for Piles in Gravel
,”
Research Report
4690-2,
Civil Engineering, Texas A&M University
,
09
1984
.
24.
Briaud
,
J. L.
,
Perdomo
,
D.
,
Tucker
,
L. M.
, and
Coyle
,
L. M.
, “
Statistical and Risk Analysis for the Measured and Predicted Response of 100 Piles
,”
Research Report
4981-2,
Civil Engineering Department, Texas A&M University
,
10
1985
.
25.
O'Neill
,
M. W.
,
Hawkins
,
R. A.
, and
Mahar
,
L. T.
, “
Field Study of Pile Group Action
,”
Research Report
No. FHWA/RD-81,
Civil Engineering, University of Houston
,
10
1980
.
26.
O'Neill
,
M. W.
and
Sheikh
,
S. A.
, “
Geotechnical Behavior of Underreams in Pleistocene Clay
,”
Drilled Piers and Caissons II
,
ASCE Convention
,
05
1985
.
27.
Briaud
,
J. L.
and
Riner
,
K. B.
, “
A Study of Cyclic Pressuremeter Testing for Offshore Applications
,”
Research Report
4839,
Civil Engineering, Texas A&M University
,
1984
.
28.
Gambin
,
M.
, “
Calcul du Tassement d'une Fondation Profonde en Fonction des Resultats Pressiometriques
,”
Sols-Soils
, No.
30/31
,
1979
.
29.
Frank
,
R.
and
Zhao
,
S. R.
, “
Estimation par les Parametres Pressiometriques de l'Enfoncement Sous Charge Axiale de Pieux Fores dans les Sols Fins
,”
Bull. Liaison Labo. P. et Ch. 119
, May–June 1982.
30.
Baguelin
,
F.
,
Frank
,
R.
and
Jezequel
,
J. F.
, “
Parameters for Friction Piles in Marine Soils
,”
Second Int. Conf. in Numerical Methods for Offshore Piling
,
Austin
,
04
1982
.
31.
Randolph
,
M. F.
and
Wroth
,
C. P.
, “
Analysis of Deformation of Vertically Loaded Piles
,”
ASCE Geotechnical Engineering Journal
, Vol.
104
, GT12,
12
1978
.
32.
O'Neill
,
M. W.
Hawkins
,
R. A.
and
Mahar
,
L. J.
, “
Field Study of Pile Group Action: Appendix A, User's Guide, Program PILGP1
,” Report No. FHWA/RD-81/003,
Federal Highway Administration
,
03
1981
.
33.
Terzaghi
,
K.
and
Peck
,
R. B.
,
Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice
,
John Wiley & Sons
,
New York
, p. 550,
1967
.
34.
Briaud
,
J. L.
and
Tucker
,
L. M.
, “
Pressuremeter and Shallow Foundations on Sand
,”
Settlement of Shallow Foundations on Sand
,
ASCE Convention
,
Seattle
,
04
1986
.
35.
Briaud
,
J. L.
,
Smith
,
T. D.
and
Meyer
,
B. J.
, “
Pressuremeter Gives Elementary Model for Laterally Loaded Piles
,”
Int. Symp. on In Situ Testing of Soil and Rock
,
Paris
,
05
1983
.
36.
Reese
,
L. C.
, “
Laterally Loaded Piles: Program Documentation
,”
ASCE Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division
, Vol.
103
, GT4,
04
1977
.
37.
Menard
,
L.
,
Bourdon
,
G.
and
Gambin
,
M.
, “
Methode Generale de Calcul d'un Rideau ou Pieu Sollicite Horizontalement en Fonction des Resultats Pressiometriques
,”
Sols-Soils
, No.
20/23
,
1969
.
38.
Gambin
,
M.
, “
Calculations of Foundations Subjected to Horizontal Forces Using Pressuremeter Data
,”
Sols-Soils
, No.
30/31
,
1979
.
39.
Menard
,
L.
, “
The Menard Pressuremeter: Interpretation and Application of the Pressuremeter Test Results to Foundation Design
,”
Sols-Soils
, No.
26
,
1975
.
40.
GAI Consultants, Inc.
, “
Laterally Loaded Drilled Pier Research: Volume 1: Design Methodology, Volume 2: Research Documentation
,”
Research Report
EPRI EL-2197,
01
1982
.
41.
DiGioa
,
A.
,
Davidson
,
H. L.
and
Donovan
,
T. D.
, “
Laterally Loaded Drilled Piers: A Design Model
,”
Drilled Piers and Caissons
,
ASCE Convention
,
St. Louis
,
10
1981
.
42.
Hansen
,
B. J.
, “
The Ultimate Resistance of Rigid Piles Against Transversal Forces
,”
The Danish Geotechnical Institute Bulletin
No.
12
,
1961
.
43.
Dunand
,
M.
, “
Etude Experimentale du Comportement des Fondations Soumises au Renversement
,”
These de Docteur Ingenieur
,
Institut de Mecanique de Grenoble
,
France
,
1981
.
44.
Suyama
,
K.
,
Imai
,
T.
and
Ohya
,
S.
, “
Development of LLT Pressuremeter and Its Application in Prediction of Pile Behavior under Horizontal Load
,”
Symposium on the Pressuremeter and Its Marine Applications
,
Editions Technip
,
Paris
,
1982
.
45.
Briaud
,
J. L.
,
Smith
,
T. D.
, and
Tucker
,
L. M.
, “
A Pressuremeter Method for Laterally Loaded Piles
,”
Int. Conf. of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering
, Vol.
3
, p. 1353, San Francisco,
1985
.
46.
Smith
,
T. D.
, “
Pressuremeter Design Method for Single Piles Subjected to Static Lateral Load
,” Ph.D. dissertation,
Civil Engineering Department, Texas A&M University
, College Station, Texas,
08
1983
.
47.
Kay
,
S.
,
Kolk
,
H. J.
, and
Hooydonk
,
W. R.
, “
Site Specific Design of Laterally Loaded Piles
,”
ASCE Speicalty Conference on Geotechnical Practice in Offshore Engineering
,
Austin
,
1983
.
48.
Kay
,
S.
,
Grifiths
,
V.
and
Kolk
,
H. J.
, “
Application of Pressuremeter Testing to Assess Lateral Pile Response in Clays
,”
The Pressuremeter and Its Marine Applications: Second International Symposium
, ASTM STP 950,
1986
.
49.
Hughes
,
J. M.O.
,
Goldsmith
,
P. R.
and
Fendall
,
H. D.W.
, “
Predicted and Measured Behavior of Laterally Loaded Piles for the Westgate Freeway Bridge
,”
Victoria Geomechanics Society
,
Australia
,
08
1979
.
50.
Robertson
,
P. K.
,
Hughes
,
J. M.O.
,
Campanella
,
R. G.
and
Sy
,
A.
,
Design of Laterally Loaded Displacement Piles Using a Driven Pressuremeter
,”
Laterally Loaded Deep Foundations
, ASTM STP 835,
Kansas City
,
06
1982
.
51.
Robertson
,
P. K.
,
Hughes
,
J. M.O.
,
Campanella
,
R. G.
,
Brown
,
P.
, and
KcKeown
,
S.
, “
Design of Laterally Loaded Piles Using the Pressuremeter
,”
The Pressuremeter and Its Marine Applications: Second International Symposium
, ASTM STP 950,
1986
.
52.
Matlock
,
H.
, “
Correlations for Design of Laterally Loaded Piles in Soft Clay
,”
Offshore Technology Conference
, Paper 1204,
Houston
,
1970
.
53.
Reese
,
L. C.
,
Cox
,
W. R.
, and
Koop
,
F.
, “
Analysis of Laterally Loaded Piles in Sand
,”
Offshore Technology Conference
, Paper 2080,
Houston
,
1974
.
54.
Gibson
,
R. E.
and
Anderson
,
W. F.
, “
In Situ Measurement of Soil Properties with the Pressuremeter
,”
Civil Engineering and Public Works Review
, London,
56
, No.
658
,
05
1961
.
55.
Briaud
,
J. L.
,
Smith
,
T. D.
, and
Meyer
,
B. J.
, “
Laterally Loaded Piles and the Pressuremeter: Comparison of Existing Methods
,”
Laterally Loaded Deep Foundations
 ASTM STP 835,
1983
.
56.
Matlock
,
H.
and
Tucker
,
R. L.
, “
Lateral Load Tests of an Instrumented Pile at Sabine, Texas
,”
A Report to Shell Development Company
, Houston,
09
1961
.
57.
Reese
,
L. C.
,
Cox
,
W. R.
and
Koop
,
F. D.
, “
Analysis of Laterally Loaded Pile Tests in Sand at Mustang Island
,”
A Report to Shell Development Company
, Houston,
11
1967
.
58.
Matlock
,
H.
,
Ripperger
,
E. A.
and
Fitzgibbon
,
D. P.
, “
Static and Cyclic Lateral Loading of an Instrumented Pile
,”
A Report to Shell Oil Company
, Houston,
07
1956
.
59.
Welch
,
R. C.
and
Reese
,
L. C.
, “
Lateral Load Behavior of Drilled Shafts
,”
Research Report
89-10,
Center for Highway Research, The University of Texas at Austin
,
05
1972
.
60.
Kasch
,
V. R.
,
Coyle
,
H. M.
,
Bartoskewitz
,
R. E.
and
Sarver
,
W. G.
, “
Lateral Load Test of a Drilled Shaft in Clay
,” Report TTI 211-1,
Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University
,
11
1977
.
61.
Holloway
,
G. L.
,
Coyle
,
H. M.
,
Bartoskewitz
,
R. E.
and
Sarver
,
W. G.
, “
Field Test and Preliminary Design Method for Laterally Loaded Drilled Shafts in Clay
,” Report TTI 211-2,
Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University
,
09
1978
.
62.
Bierschwale
,
M. W.
,
Coyle
,
H. M.
, and
Bartoskewitz
,
R. E.
, “
Field Tests and New Design Procedure for Laterally Loaded Drilled Shafts in Clay
,” Report TTI 211-3F,
Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University
,
01
1981
.
63.
O'Neill
,
M. W.
and
Dunnavant
,
T. W.
, “
A Study of the Effect of Scale, Velocity, and Cyclic Degradability on Laterally Loaded Singel Piles in Overconsolidated Clay
,”
Research Report
No. UHCE 84-7,
Civil Engineering, University of Houston
,
10
1984
.
64.
Briaud
,
J. L.
,
Braswell
,
T. E.
and
Tucker
L. M.
, “
Case History of Two Laterally Loaded Piles at Lock & Dam 26 Replacement Site
,”
Research Report
4690-2,
Civil Engineering, Texas A&M University
,
06
1984
.
65.
Woodward-Clyde Consultants
, “
Foundation Investigation and Test Program, Lock & Dam No. 26, Mississippi, Alton, Illinois
,”
Report to the St. Louis Distric, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
,
1979
.
66.
Spencer
,
J. Buchanan
and
Associates, Inc.
, “
Lateral Pile Load Tests at Exxon Baytown Olefins Plant
,”
A report to Exxon Chemical Americas
,
Bryan
,
Texas
,
01
1982
.
67.
Laboratoire des Ponts et Chaussees
, “
Internal Documents on Lateral Pile Load Tests
,”
Paris
,
1982
.
68.
Le Mauff
,
H.
and
Peignaud
,
M.
, “
Sollicitations Horizontales de Dispositifs Legers d'Amarrage
,” Bull. Liaison Labo. P. et Ch. No.
64
, March–April, 1973.
69.
Ambrosino
,
R.
,
Bru
,
J. P.
and
Ledoux
,
J. L.
, “
Comportement d'un Pieu Sollicite Horizontalement
,” Bull. Liaison Labo. P. et Ch. No.
67
, September/October 1973.
70.
Bigot
,
G.
,
Bourges
,
F.
and
Frank
,
R.
, “
Etude Experimentale d'un Pieu Soumis aux Poussees Laterales des Sols
,”
Revue Francaise de Geotechnique
, No.
18
,
02
1982
.
71.
Baguelin
,
F.
and
Jezequel
,
J. F.
, “
Etude Experimentale du Comportement de Pieux Sollicites Horizontalement
,” Bull. Liaison Labo. P. et Ch. No.
62
, November/December 1972.
72.
Briaud
,
J. L.
,
Makarim
,
C. A.
,
Little
,
R.
and
Tucker
,
L. M.
, “
Development of a Pressuremeter Method for Predicting the Behavior of Single Piles in Clay Subjected to Cyclic Lateral Loads
,”
Research Report
5112,
Civil Engineering, Texas A&M University
,
11
1985
.
73.
Briaud
,
J. L.
and
Garland
,
E.
, “
Influence of Loading Rate on Axially Loaded Piles in Clay
,”
Research Report
4695,
Civil Engineering, Texas A&M University
,
03
1984
.
74.
Briaud
,
J. L.
and
Garland
,
E.
, “
Loading Rate Method for Piles Response in Clay
,”
ASCE Geotechnical Engineering Journal
, Vol.
III
, No.
3
,
03
1985
.
75.
Riggins
,
M.
, “
The Viscoelastic Characteristics of Marine Sediments in Large Scale Simple Shear
,” Ph.D. dissertation,
Civil Engineering, Texas A&M University
,
1981
.
76.
Briaud
,
J. L.
, and
Terry
,
T. A.
, “
Rate Effect for Vertical and Horizontal Pile Response
,”
3rd International Conference on Numerical Methods in Offshore Piling
,
Nantes
,
05
1986
.
77.
Briaud
,
J. L.
,
Riner
,
K. B.
and
Ohya
,
S.
, “
Cyclic Pressuremeter Tests for Cyclic Lateral Loads
,”
Offshore Technology Conference
, Paper 4678,
Houston
,
1984
.
78.
Jezequel
,
J. F.
and
LeMehaute
,
A.
, “
Cyclic Tests with the Selfboring Pressuremeter
,”
Symposium on the Pressuremeter and Its Marine Applications
,
Editions Technip
,
Paris
,
1982
.
79.
Puech
,
A.
,
Brucy
,
F.
and
Ma
,
E.
, “
Tension Pile Design Using Selfboring Prerssuremeter Test Results
,”
Symposium on the Pressuremeter and Its Marine Applications
,
Editions Technip
,
Paris
,
1982
.
80.
Briaud
,
J. L.
and
Felio
,
G. Y.
, “
Influence of Cyclic Loading on Axially Loaded Piles in Clay
,”
Research Report
4980,
Civil Engineering, Texas A&M University
,
04
1985
.
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