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ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Stationary Gas Turbine Alternative Fuels
By
SM DeCorso
SM DeCorso
1
Westinghouse Electric Corp.
,
Concordville, Pa. 19331
.
Search for other works by this author on:
JS Clark
JS Clark
2
NASA-Lewis Research Center
,
editor
Search for other works by this author on:
ISBN-10:
0-8031-0258-5
ISBN:
978-0-8031-0258-3
No. of Pages:
369
Publisher:
ASTM International
Publication date:
1983

The state of California currently depends extensively on imported oil and natural gas from other states and foreign countries. To ensure uninterrupted service to industrial and utility company engines, alternative fuels to petroleum are being investigated. Sponsored by the California Energy Commission, an evaluation was conducted by the Acurex Corp. of coal and coal-based fuels for use in stationary gas turbines. A broad range of coal-derived solids, gases, and liquids is reviewed in this paper. Candidate fuels are identified which do not affect engine operation or exceed California environmental regulations—particularly for nitrogen oxides (NOx) pollutants.

Beneficiated coals, which contain significant amounts of ash, cause unacceptable turbine blade erosion and corrosion problems. Therefore, coal solids cannot be considered viable turbine fuels at this time. However, many gas and liquid synthetic fuels exhibit handling and combustion characteristics similar to those of petroleum fuels. Only minor hardware modifications are necessary to burn these fuels. For fuels with high nitrogen content, such as unhydrotreated direct liquids, advanced combustors are required to control NOx emissions and to meet California's stringent environmental standards.

Methanol was selected as the preferred synthetic fuel. Methanol produces low emissions and requires only minor equipment changes. Testing is under way to quantify methanol's NOx emission characteristics.

1.
Jackson
,
M. D.
, “
Clean Coal Fuels: Alternate Fuel Strategies for Stationary and Mobile Engines
,”
Executive Summary, Acurex
Report 81-101/EE,
Acurex Corp., Mountain View
, Calif.,
09
1981
.
2.
Proposed Rule 1134—Control of Oxides of Nitrogen Emissions from Electric Utility Gas Turbines
,”
South Coast Air Quality Management District
,
El Monte, Calif.
,
12
1981
.
3.
Energy Tomorrow, Challenges and Opportunities for California
,”
1981 Biennial Report
,
California Energy Commission
, Sacramento, Calif.,
1981
.
4.
Rolniak
,
P. D.
,
Pace Co., Consultants and Engineers, Inc.
, personal communication to M. D. Jackson, Acurex Corp.,
11
1981
.
5.
Common Forecasting Methodology (CFM), Form 3, for Fossil 1 and 2
,” submitted to the
California Energy Commission by the Pacific Gas and Electric Co.
,
San Francisco, Calif.
,
1980
.
6.
Alternate Fuel Strategies for Stationary and Mobile Engines
,” Vol.
IV
,
Acurex Report
81-101/EE,
Acurex Corp.
, Mountain View, Calif.,
09
1981
.
7.
Strimbeck
,
D. C.
,
Liberatore
,
A. J.
,
Goff
,
G. B.
, and
McGee
,
J. P.
, “
Bureau of Mines Coal-Fired Gas Turbine Research Project—Test of Combustor and Ash Separators for the Open-Cycle Plant
,”
Report of Investigations
7295,
U.S. Bureau of Mines
, Washington, D.C.,
09
1969
.
8.
Boenig
,
F. H.
,
Duncan
,
R. L.
,
Grant
,
J. R.
, and
Holladay
,
T. E.
, “
Design and Operation of Low-NOx Combustors with Medium Heating Value, Coal-Derived Gas
,”
ASME Report
80-GT-16,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
, New York,
12
1980
.
9.
Battista
,
R. A.
and
Farrell
,
R. A.
, “
Development of an Industrial Gas Turbine Combustor Burning a Variety of Coal-Derived Low-Btu Fuels and Distillate
,”
ASME Report
79-GT-172,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
, New York,
03
1979
.
10.
Koblish
,
T. R.
and
Nucci
,
L. M.
, “
High-Temperature Combustor Designed for Operation With Coal-Derived Low-Btu Gaseous Fuels
,”
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
,
New York
,
03
1980
.
11.
Bauserman
,
G.
,
DeCorso
,
S. M.
,
Mulik
,
P. R.
, and
Pillsbury
,
P. W.
, “
Gas Turbine Combustor Performance on Synthetic Fuels
,”
Electric Power Research Institute
,
Palo Alto, Calif.
,
07
1980
.
12.
Alternate Fuel Strategies for Stationary and Mobile Engines
,” Vol.
III
,
Acurex Report
81-101/EE,
Acurex Corp.
, Mountain View, Calif.,
09
1981
.
13.
Update
,”
Solvent Refined Coal International, Inc.
, Vol.
4
, No.
1
,
01
1981
.
14.
Montgomery
,
M. E.
, “
Handling, Washing, and Burning Solid Solvent-Refined Coal (SRC-I) as a Liquid Fuel at High Temperature
,”
ASME Report
80-JPGC/GT-4,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
, New York,
09
1980
.
15.
Carl
,
D.
,
DeCorso
,
S. M.
,
Havener
,
W. J.
,
Lew
,
H. G.
, and
Notardonato
,
J.
, “
Low NOx and Fuel-Flexible Gas Turbine Combustors
,”
ASME Report
81-GT-99,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
, New York,
03
1981
.
16.
Cutrone
,
M. B.
,
Goyal
,
A.
,
Hilt
,
M. B.
,
Ekstedt
,
E. E.
, and
Notardonato
,
J.
, “
Evaluation of Advanced Combustors for Dry NOx Suppression with Nitrogen-Bearing Fuels in Utility and Industrial Gas Turbines
,”
ASME Report
81-GT-125,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
, New York,
03
1981
.
17.
Batakis
,
A.
,
LeCren
,
R. T.
,
White
,
D. J.
, and
Yacobucci
,
H. G.
, “
Low-NOx Combustion Systems for Burning Heavy Residual Fuels and High Fuel-Bound Nitrogen Fuels
,”
ASME Report
81-GT-109,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
, New York,
03
1981
.
18.
Novick
,
A. S.
,
Troth
,
D. L.
, and
Yacobucci
,
H. G.
, “
Design and Preliminary Results of a Fuel-Flexible Industrial Gas Turbine Combustor
,”
ASME Report
81-GT-108,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
, New York,
03
1981
.
19.
Beal
,
G. W.
,
Russell
,
P. L.
,
Schultz
,
D.
, and
Sederquist
,
R. A.
, “
Evaluation of Concepts for Controlling Exhaust Emissions from Minimally Processed Petroleum and Synthetic Fuels
,”
ASME Report
81-GT-157,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
, New York,
03
1981
.
20.
Danko
,
E. A.
,
von Kleinsmid
,
W. H.
, and
Weir
,
A.
, “
Test and Evaluation of Methanol in a Gas Turbine System
,”
EPRI Report
988-1,
Electric Power Research Institute
, Palo Alto, Calif.,
02
1981
.
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