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ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Building Security
By
J Stroik
J Stroik
1
Research architect
, Environmental Design Research Division—Center for Building Technology,
National Bureau of Standards
,
Washington, D.C., 20234
;
symposium chairman and editor
.
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ISBN-10:
0-8031-0606-8
ISBN:
978-0-8031-0606-2
No. of Pages:
221
Publisher:
ASTM International
Publication date:
1981

The lack of secure environments for business and industry presents a substantial obstacle to the economic revitalization of major American cities. Both existing and new investment is endangered and reduced by the unacceptable risks to personal safety and property found in older urban areas. Although essential to the protection of industrial capacity and goods, improved building security must be accompanied by: protection for the work force on the way to and from work; security for parked motor vehicles; security from arson and vandalism; and security of a psychological nature if workers with the needed skills are to be attracted to work within the older areas of the city that are most in need of economic development.

This form of security is highly dependent on the configuration of the overall environment, on sightlines, traffic layout, illumination, public services, entrapment patterns, work schedules, and public attitudes as well as on appropriate and reliable security programs, hardware, and systems. Of special importance is the design of urban industrial and commercial environments which promote positive patterns of human behavior and psychological security while frustrating criminal behavior. The potential for this approach has been indicated for multi-family residences by Newman, Cooper, Fowler, and others but has not been applied to the very grave problems of security for industrial and commercial activity in older urban areas.

The Special Session on Industrial and Commercial Security Through Environmental Design was organized to explore this approach, to discuss its implications for policy and program within concerned government agencies, and to identify avenues for research and demonstration projects which directly address the problem. To accomplish these goals the session was organized in a manner different from other sessions at this symposium. An illustrated presentation by the session chairman outlined the problem and the potentials of the approach. This was followed by commentary and discussion from an invited panel of distinguished Federal officials representing agencies having an interest in the issues of economic development, commerce, urban policy, and crime prevention. This paper conceptualizes the approach, presents the outcome of the panel discussions, and outlines appropriate research initiatives. Research program outlines and an executive summary have been also prepared.

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,”
Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States
,
U.S. Government Printing Office
,
Washington, D.C.
,
14
01
1979
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2.
Survey of Industry
,”
Philadelphia City Planning Commission, Philadelphia Industrial Development Corporation
,
1975
, p. 129, p. 112.
3.
Central City Businesses—Plans and Problems
,”
Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States
,
U.S. Government Printing Office
,
Washington, D.C.
,
14
01
1979
, p. 3.
4.
An Urban Strategy
,”
Philadelphia Department of Commerce
,
City of Philadelphia
,
1978
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5.
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,”
Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States
,
U.S. Government Printing Office
,
Washington, D.C.
,
14
01
1979
, p. 3.
6.
An Urban Strategy
,”
Philadelphia Department of Commerce
,
City of Philadelphia
, p. 78.
7.
Survey of Industry
,”
Philadelphia City Planning Commission, Philadelphia Industrial Development Corporation
,
1975
, p. 112.
8.
Newman
,
Oscar
,
Design Guidelines for Creating Defensible Space
,
National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice, Law Enforcement Assistance Administration
, April, 1976.
9.
Gold
,
Robert
,
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,
Macmillan
,
New York
,
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10.
Lipman
,
Alan
, in
Designing for Human Behavior: Architecture and the Behavioral Sciences
,
Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross
,
Stroudsburg, Pa.
,
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, p. 23.
11.
Newman
,
Oscar
,
Defensible Space: Crime Prevention Through Urban Design
.
Macmillan
,
New York
,
1976
.
12.
Fowler
,
Floyd,
 Jr.
, “
The Evaluation of the Hartford Experiment: A Rigorous Multi-Method Effort to Learn Something
,”
Center for Survey Research, The University of Massachusetts, Boston and the Joint Center for Urban Studies of MIT and Harvard
,
11
1978
.
13.
American Stress Development Plan
,”
Philadelphia City Planning Commission
,
City of Philadelphia
,
10
1977
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14.
OKBA Security Survey Results
,”
Olde Kensington Business Association, Inc.
,
06
1979
.
15.
American Street Major Crime Offences
,”
Commercial Sector Crime Annual, Philadelphia Police Department
, 1972–1976.
16.
American Street Industrial Development Program
, Security Project Evaluation,
09
1978
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17.
OKBA Security Survey Results
,”
Olde Kensington Business Association, Inc.
,
06
1979
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18.
Ward
,
Colin
,
Vandalism
,
Van Nostrand Reinhold
,
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,
1973
.
19.
Becker
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 0022-3514,
1973
, pp. 263, 439, 445.
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Edney
,
J. J.
and
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in
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 0038-0431, Vol.
37
, No.
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, pp. 92-103.
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,
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Altman
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Irwin
,
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,
Brooks/Cole
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23.
Zimbardo
,
Philip
, in
Vandalism
,
Van Nostrand Reinhold
,
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,
1973
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,
Ethology: The Biology of Behavior
,
Holt Rinehart and Winston
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25.
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J. J.
in
Journal of Applied Social Psychology
 0021-9029, Vol.
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26.
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,”
The Allegheny West Foundation
,
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27.
Ley
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and
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in
Environment and Behavior
 0013-9165, Vol.
6
, No.
1
,
1974
, pp. 53-68.
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