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ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Chemical Dispersants for the Control of Oil Spills
By
LT McCarthy, Jr Jr
LT McCarthy, Jr Jr
1
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
,
Edison, N.J. 08817
;
coeditor
.
Search for other works by this author on:
GP Lindblom
GP Lindblom
2
Exxon Chemical Company
,
editor
Search for other works by this author on:
HF Walter
HF Walter
3
Department of Energy
,
editor
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ISBN-10:
0-8031-0299-2
ISBN:
978-0-8031-0299-6
No. of Pages:
315
Publisher:
ASTM International
Publication date:
1978

A small-scale laboratory system is described in which known amounts of oil and dispersant are introduced on a water surface at a controlled temperature and turbulence and the dispersion behavior observed. Turbulence is provided by circulating an air current over the oil-water surface, thus simulating, to some extent, natural wave action and avoiding the atypical turbulence introduced by mechanical agitation devices. Oil adherence to solid surfaces is minimized. The apparatus is believed to be particularly suitable for studying the effectiveness and behavior of dispersants under conditions where little or no artificial turbulence is provided. The design and performance of the apparatus is described and some results presented in which turbulence, oil-to-dispersant ratio, and temperature are varied. The system is suitable for close observation of the dispersion process and subsequent emulsified oil behavior. The advantages and disadvantages of the system are outlined and the possibility of relating sea state to conditions in the apparatus is discussed.

1.
Harris
,
G. W.
and
Doe
,
K. G.
, “
Methods Used in Testing of Oil Spill Dispersants by Environment Canada
”,
Environment Canada
,
1977
.
2.
Gill
,
S. D.
in
Proceedings
, Joint Conference on the Prevention and Control of Oil Spills,
American Petroleum Institute
,
Washington, D.C.
,
03
1977
, pp. 391–394.
3.
Canevari
,
G. P.
in
Proceedings
, Joint Conference on the Prevention and Control of Oil Spills,
American Petroleum Institute
,
Washington, D.C.
,
03
1977
, pp. 397–399.
4.
McCarthy
,
L. T.
in
Proceedings
, Joint Conference on the Prevention and Control of Oil Spills,
American Petroleum Institute
,
Washington, D.C.
,
03
1977
, pp. 399–401.
5.
Smith
,
G. F.
and
McCracken
,
W. E.
in
Proceedings
, Joint Conference on the Prevention and Control of Oil Spills,
American Petroleum Institute
,
Washington, D.C.
,
03
1977
, pp. 403–496.
6.
Bocard
,
C.
 et al
, in
Proceedings
, Joint Conference on the Prevention and Control of Oil Spills,
American Petroleum Institute
,
Washington, D.C.
,
03
1977
, pp. 407–415.
7.
Cormack
,
D.
and
Nichols
,
J. A.
in
Proceedings
, Joint Conference on the Prevention and Control of Oil Spills,
American Petroleum Institute
,
Washington, D.C.
,
03
1977
, pp. 381–385.
8.
Wiegel
,
R. L.
,
Oceanographical Engineering
,
Prentice-Hall
,
Englewood Cliffs, N.J.
,
1964
.
9.
Walkup
,
P. C.
 et al
, “
Oil Spill Treating Agents, Test Procedures: Status and Recommendations
,”
Battelle Memorial Institute
,
Columbus, Ohio
,
01
05
1970
.
10.
Zitko
,
V.
and
Carson
,
W. G.
, “
Bunker C Oil Dispersibility in Water by Corexit and XZIT at Different Temperatures
”, Manuscript Report, Series No. 1043,
Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Biological Station
, St. Andrews, N.B.,
10
1969
.
11.
Murphy
,
T. A.
and
McCarthy
,
L. T.
in
Proceedings
, Joint Conference on the Prevention and Control of Oil Spills,
New York, N.Y.
, Dec. 15–17, 1969.
12.
Oda
,
A.
, “
Evaluation of Polycomplex A-11 as an Oil Dispersant
”, Research Paper No.
2020
,
Ontario Water Resources Commission
,
06
1968
.
13.
Adam
,
N. K.
,
The Physics and Chemistry of Surfaces
, 3rd ed.,
Oxford University Press
,
1941
.
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