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ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Concrete Pipe and The Soil-Structure System
By
M Bealey
M Bealey
1
Vice president
,
American Concrete Pipe Association
,
Vienna, Va. 22180
;
symposium chairman and editor of this publication
.
Search for other works by this author on:
JD Lemons
JD Lemons
2
Deputy city engineer
,
City of Los Angeles
,
Los Angeles, Calif. 90012
;
symposium chairman and editor of this publication
.
Search for other works by this author on:
ISBN-10:
0-8031-0311-5
ISBN:
978-0-8031-0311-5
No. of Pages:
144
Publisher:
ASTM International
Publication date:
1977

The purpose of this paper is to introduce CANDE, a new computer program for the structural design and analysis of pipe culverts, including not only reinforced concrete, but also corrugated steel, corrugated aluminum, and plastic pipe. CANDE operates either in a design or an analysis mode and offers a choice of three solution levels ranging from an elasticity solution to a general finite-element solution. The solution level concept allows the design engineer to choose a degree of rigor and cost commensurate with a particular project. Analytical modeling features include: incremental construction, nonlinear behavior of both soil and pipe, and nonlinear contact interfaces.

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Marston
,
A.
,
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, Vol.
9
,
1930
, pp. 138–170.
2.
Spangler
,
M. G.
, “
A Preliminary Experiment on the Supporting Strength of Culvert Pipes in an Actual Embankment
,” Bulletin No. 76,
Engineering Experiment Station
,
Iowa State College
,
1920
.
3.
Design Manual Concrete Pipe
,
American Concrete Pipe Association
, third printing (reised),
Arlington, Va.
,
1974
.
4.
Heger
,
F. J.
and
Saba
,
B. K.
, “
The Structural Behavior of Precast Concrete Pipe Reinforced with Welded Wire Fabric
,”
Department of Civil and Sanitary Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
, Progress Report No. 2, Project No. 1-7734, a technical report to the Committee of Welded Wire Fabric Reinforcement Producers,
American Iron and Steel Institute
,
07
1961
.
5.
Heger
,
F. J.
, “
A Theory for the Structural Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Pipe
,” submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Science,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
,
01
1962
.
6.
Heger
,
F. J.
,
Nawy
,
E. G.
, and
Daba
,
B. K.
, “
Structural Behavior of Circular Reinforced Concrete Pipe Reinforced with Welded Wire Fabric
,”
American Concrete Institute Journal
,
10
1963
.
7.
Heger
,
F. J.
, “
Structural Behavior of Circular Reinforced Concrete Pipe—Development of Theory
,”
American Concrete Institute Journal
,
11
1963
.
8.
Heger
,
F. J.
and
Gillespie
,
J. W.
, “
Design of Circular Concrete Pipe Reinforced with Welded Deformed Wire Fabric
,” Highway Research Record No. 176,
Highway Research Board
,
Washington, D. C.
,
1967
.
9.
Heger
,
F. J.
,
Podolny
,
W.
,
Chambers
,
R. E.
, and
Ballard
,
L. L.
, “
Evaluation of Welded Deformed Wire Fabric Reinforcement in Machine Made Concrete Pipe
,” Highway Research Record No. 320,
Highway Research Board
,
Washington, D. C.
,
1970
.
10.
Olander
,
H. C.
, “
Stress Analysis of Concrete Pipe
,” Engineering Monograph No. 6,
United States Bureau of Reclamation
,
10
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.
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Paris
,
J. M.
, “
Stress Coefficients for Large Horizontal Pipes
,”
Engineering News Record
 0143-3857, Vol.
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, No.
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11
1921
, pp. 768–771.
12.
Krizek
,
R. J.
,
Parmelee
,
R. A.
,
Kay
,
J. N.
, and
Elnagger
,
H. A.
, “
Structural Analysis and Design of Pipe Culverts
,” Report No. 116,
National Cooperative Highway Research Program, National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering
, Washington, D. C.,
1971
.
13.
Brown
,
C. B.
,
Proceedings, American Society of Civil Engineers
, Vol.
93
, No.
ST5
,
10
1967
, pp. 195–215.
14.
A Symposium on Soil-Structure Interaction
,”
Highway Research Record No. 413
, (9 reports),
Washington, D. C.
,
1972
.
15.
Burns
,
J. W.
, “
An Analysis of Circular Cylindrical Shells Embedded in Elastic Media
,” Ph. D. thesis,
University of Arizona
, Tucson, Ariz.,
1965
.
16.
Parmelee
,
R. L.
, “
NUPIPE, A Computer Program for Reinforced Concrete Pipe
,” sponsored by
American Concrete Pipe Association, Northwestern University
,
01
1976
.
17.
Nataraja
,
M.
, “
Finite Element Solution of Stresses and Displacements in a Soil-Culvert System
,” Ph. D. thesis,
University of Pittsburgh
,
1973
.
18.
Allgood
,
J. R.
and
Takahashi
,
S. K.
, “
Balanced Design and Finite Element Analysis of Culverts
,” Highway Research Record 413, Soil-Structure Interaction Symposium,
1972
.
19.
Duncan
,
J. M.
, “
Finite Element Analysis of Buried Flexible Metal Culvert Structures
,” paper to be published in
Lauritis Bjerrum Memorial Volume
,
Norwegian Geotechnical Institute
,
Oslo, Norway
,
1975
.
20.
Katona
,
M. G.
,
Smith
,
J. M.
,
Odello
,
R. J.
, and
Allgood
,
J. R.
, “
CANDE: A Modern Approach for the Structural Design of Buried Pipe Culvert
,”
Civil Engineering Laboratory
,
Port Hueneme, Calif.
, technical report to Federal Highway Administration,
10
1976
.
21.
Katona
,
M. G.
and
Smith
,
J. M.
, “
CANDE: User Manual
,”
Civil Engineering Laboratory
,
Port Hueneme, Calif.
, technical report to Federal Highway Administration,
10
1976
.
22.
Zienkiewicz
,
O. C.
,
The Finite Element Method in Engineering Science
,
McGraw-Hill
,
London
,
1971
.
23.
Herrmann
,
L. R.
,
Journal of Computers and Structures
, Vol.
3
,
1973
, pp. 1377–1395.
24.
Hardin
,
B. O.
, “
Effects of Strain Amplitude on the Shear Modulus of Soils
,” Technical Report AFWL-TR-72-201,
Air Force Weapons Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base
, N. Mex.,
03
1973
.
25.
Control of Cracking in Concrete Structures
,”
Journal of the American Concrete Institute
 0002-8061, ACI Committee 224, Vol.
69
, No.
12
,
12
1972
.
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