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ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Impact Testing of Metals
By
DE Driscoll
DE Driscoll
1
Chief
, Quality Assurance Division,
Army Materials and Mechanics Research Center
,
Watertown, Mass. 02172
;
symposium chairman
.
Search for other works by this author on:
ISBN-10:
0-8031-0739-0
ISBN:
978-0-8031-0739-7
No. of Pages:
321
Publisher:
ASTM International
Publication date:
1970

Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact-test results are used widely in various toughness specifications even though the energy absorption values cannot be related directly to structural design. Conversely, KIc, the plane-strain stress-intensity factor at onset of unstable crack growth, can be related to structural design, but KIc test results usually are not used in toughness specifications. To the designer, however, KIc values are more useful than CVN values. An investigation, therefore, was conducted to determine whether correlations could be developed between KIc and CVN test results in the transition-temperature range to assist both the materials engineer and the structural designer.

The results showed that various correlations do exist between KIc and CVN test results in the transition-temperature range. Static KIc values were correlated with the energy absorptions determined with slow-bend fatigue-cracked CVN specimens, and dynamic KIc values were correlated with the energy absorptions determined with dynamic fatigue-cracked CVN specimens. Empirical correlations also were developed between the results of slow-bend KIc tests and the results of standard CVN impact tests for the transition-temperature region as well as the upper-shelf region. Furthermore, the results show that slow-bend and impact CVN data can be used to predict the effects of dynamic loading on KIc values.

In general, the results of this investigation have shown that correlations between KIc and CVN test results do exist, and that these correlations can be used to estimate KIc values as well as the effect of loading rate on KIc from CVN test results.

1.
Williams
,
M. L.
, “
Analysis of Brittle Behavior in Ship Plates
,” Ship Structure Committee Report, Serial No. NBS-5,
07
02
1955
(also
Williams
,
M. L.
, included in
Effect of Temperature on the Brittle Behavior of Metals with Particular Reference to Low Temperature
, ASTM STP 158,
American Society for Testing and Materials
,
1954
, pp. 11–44).
2.
Rolfe
,
S. T.
and
Gensamer
,
M.
, “
Fracture-Toughness Requirements for Steels
,” AD 835 923L,
20
09
1968
(available from Defense Documentation Center).
3.
Barsom
,
J. M.
and
Rolfe
,
S. T.
, “
KIc Transition-Temperature Behavior of A517-F Steel
,” AD 846 124L,
29
11
1968
(available from Defense Documentation Center).
4.
Shoemaker
,
A. K.
and
Rolfe
,
S. T.
, “
The Static and Dynamic Low-Temperature Crack-Toughness Performance of Seven Structural Steels
,” AD 846 126L,
29
11
1968
(available from Defense Documentation Center.)
5.
Brown
,
W. F.
, Jr.
, and
Srawley
,
J. E.
,
Plane Strain Crack Toughness Testing of High-Strength Metallic Materials
, ASTM STP 410,
American Society for Testing and Materials
,
1967
.
6.
Clausing
,
D. P.
, “
Effect of Plane-Strain Sensitivity on the Charpy Toughness of Structural Steels
,” AD 836 314L,
15
05
1968
(available from Defense Documentation Center).
7.
Hollomon
,
J. H.
, “
The Notched-Bar Impact Test
,”
Transactions, American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers
, Vol.
158
,
1944
, pp. 310–322.
8.
Rolfe
,
S. T.
and
Novak
,
S. R.
, “
Slow-Bend KIc Testing of Medium-Strength High-Toughness Steels
,” AD 817 373L,
01
08
1967
(available from Defense Documentation Center).
9.
Greenberg
,
H. D.
,
Wessel
,
E. T.
, and
Pryle
,
W. H.
, “
Fracture Toughness of Turbine-Generator Rotor Forgings
,” presented at the
Second National Symposium on Fracture Mechanics
,
Lehigh University
,
Bethlehem, Pa.
, 17–19, June 1968.
10.
Burdekin
,
M. A.
, “
Initiation of Brittle Fracture in Structural Steels
,”
The British Welding Journal
 0524-6806, Vol.
14
, No.
12
,
1967
, pp. 649–659.
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