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ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Applications Related Phenomena in Titanium Alloys
By
H Conrad
H Conrad
1
Chairman
, Department of Metallurgical Engineering,
University of Kentucky
,
Lexington, Ky.
;
symposium chairman
.
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RI Jaffee
RI Jaffee
2
Battelle Memorial Institute
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HP Kessler
HP Kessler
3
Reactive Metals, Inc.
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WW Minkler
WW Minkler
4
Titanium Metals Corporation of America
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ISBN-10:
0-8031-0748-X
ISBN:
978-0-8031-0748-9
No. of Pages:
305
Publisher:
ASTM International
Publication date:
1968

Titanium has poor resistance to wear and galling and is among the most difficult of metals to lubricate. This condition is attributable to the nature of the adsorbed gas film on the metal's surface. Emphasis has been placed on modifying the surface to improve wear and lubrication properties. Liquid lubricants were found to have little effectiveness on untreated titanium, but solid lubricants such as molybdenum sulfide (MoS2) applied to properly roughened surfaces can give useful wear life. Chemical and electrochemical conversion coatings combined with mechanical or chemical roughening provide the optimum pretreatment for bonding solid lubricants to titanium. Surface hardening processes such as nitriding and oxidizing produce wear resistant surfaces which may be lubricated by standard liquid lubricants, even at high loads. Platings of chromium or nickel on titanium are promising from the standpoint of wear resistance, but poor adhesion limits their usefulness. The most practical treatments for improving the wear resistance of titanium involve spraying of metallic or ceramic compounds such as molybdenum, titanium oxide, chromium oxide, and tungsten carbide.

1.
Farnsworth
,
H. E.
,
Schlier
,
R. E.
, and
George
,
R. T.
, “
Corrosion and Passivity Studies of Titanium
,”
Brown University
,
Providence, R. I.
, Contract DA-19-020-ORD-1816,
01
07
1952
,
30
09
1955
.
2.
Rowe
,
G. W.
, “
Vapor Lubrication of Titanium and Zirconium
,”
British Journal of Applied Physics
 0508-3443, Vol.
7
, No.
4
,
1956
.
3.
Miller
,
P. D.
and
Holladay
,
J. W.
, “
Friction and Wear Properties of Titanium
,”
Wear
 0043-1648, Vol.
2
,
11
1958
.
4.
Rabinowicz
,
E.
, “
Frictional Properties of Titanium and Its Alloys
,”
Metal Progress
, Vol.
65
, No.
2
,
1954
, p. 107.
5.
Rabinowicz
,
E.
, “
The Frictional Properties of Titanium
,” Progress Report,
Mass. Inst. of Technology to Navy Bureau of Aeronautics
, Contract No. NO as 51-1185c,
01
10
1952
.
6.
Rabinowicz
,
E.
, “
Surface Energy Approach to Friction and Wear
,”
Product Engineering
, Vol.
20
,
03
1965
, pp. 95–97.
7.
Rabinowicz
,
E.
,
Friction and Wear of Materials
,
Wiley
,
New York
,
1965
.
8.
Rabinowicz
,
E.
, “
Lubricants for Titanium
,”
Metal Progress
, Vol.
67
, No.
5
,
05
1955
.
9.
Owens
,
R. S.
and
Roberts
,
R. W.
,
Nature
 0028-0836,
26
10
1963
correspondence, p. 200.
10.
White
,
E. L.
,
Miller
,
P. D.
, and
Peoples
,
R. S.
, “
Antigalling Coatings and Lubricants for Titanium
,” TML Report No. 34,
02
1956
.
11.
Wood
,
R. A.
, “
Surface Treatment of Titanium
,” DMIC Technical Note,
15
03
1965
.
12.
Minkevich
,
A. N.
and
Shul'ga
,
Y. N.
, “
Surface Hardening of Titanium in Fused Borax
,” (abridged translation),
Metal Industry
, Vol.
93
,
1958
, pp. 67–69.
13.
Mallett
,
M. W.
, “
Surface Treatments for Titanium Alloys
,” NASA Technical Memorandum, NASATM-X-53429,
10
1965
.
14.
Mitchell
,
E.
and
Brotherton
,
P. J.
, “
Surface Treatments for Improving the Wear-Resistance and Friction Properties of Titanium and Its Alloys
,”
Journal of the Institute of Metals
, Vol.
93
,
1965
, pp. 381–386.
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