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ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Significance of Tests and Properties of Concrete and Concrete-Making Materials
By
R. C. Mielenz
R. C. Mielenz
1
The Master Builders Co.
, Division of Martin Marietta,
Cleveland, Ohio, chairman
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D. L. Bloem
D. L. Bloem
2
Nat. Ready Mixed Concrete Assn. and Nat. Sand and Gravel Assn.
,
Washington, D.C.
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L. E. Gregg
L. E. Gregg
3
Associates, Inc.
,
Lexington, Ky.
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L. E. Gregg
L. E. Gregg
3
Associates, Inc.
,
Lexington, Ky.
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C. E. Kesler
C. E. Kesler
4
University of Illinois
,
Urbana, Ill.
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W. H. Price
W. H. Price
5
Am. Cement Corp.
,
Los Angeles, Calif.
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ISBN:
978-0-8031-8109-0
No. of Pages:
582
Publisher:
ASTM International
Publication date:
1966

Accuracy in the determination of unit weight of hardened concrete can be attained using relatively simple procedures based (a) on displacement methods, such as suspended-immersed weighings of samples on sensitive scales, or (b) on weight-in-air of the sample divided by its volume as calculated from dimension measurements. The latter procedure is especially adaptable for determinations on dry specimens using precise measurements of linear dimensions within an accuracy of one per cent. Apparatus and instruments for these purposes are familiar to all, and, in regard to matters of significance, elucidation of procedure details seems unnecessary. On the other hand, any technique for determination of air content, after the concrete has set, must be more complex and would require specialized equipment if exact information is desired. Where an estimated air content will suffice to differentiate or to be indicative of the general level of air content, less discriminating techniques, predicated on precise density measurement, specific gravities, and known or determinable proportions of the ingredients, are available. While methods for unit weight are traditional, those for air content have developed since the time the advantages of entrained air became apparent, as the means for studying the effects of air content on other properties of the concrete.

1.
Feret
R.
, “
Sur la Compacité (Density) des Mortars Hydrauliques
,” Vol.
IV
,
1892
;
Annales des Ponts et Chausses
” and
Bulletin de la Societe d'Encouragement pour l'Industrie Nationale
, Vol.
II
,
1897
, p. 1604.
2.
Helms
S. B.
, “
Air Content and Unit Weight
,”
Significance of Test and Properties of Concrete and Concrete Aggregates, ASTM STP 169
,
Am. Soc. Testing Mats.
,
1955
, p. 208.
3.
Gilkey
H. J.
, “
Water-Cement Ratio Versus Strength-Another Look
,”
Journal, Am. Concrete Inst.
, April, 1961;
Proceedings
, Vol.
57
, p. 1287.
4.
Woods
Hubert
, discussion, “
Water-Cement Rates Versus Strength
,”
Journal, Am. Concrete Inst.
, December, 1961, Part 2;
Proceedings
, Vol.
58
, p. 1871.
5.
Talbot
A. N.
and
Richart
F. E.
, “
The Strength of Concrete—Its Relation to the Cement Aggregates, and Water
,” Bulletin No. 137,
Engineering Experiment Station, University of Illinois
,
Urbana, Ill.
,
1923
.
6.
Feret
R.
, discussion, “
The Laws of Proportioning Concrete
,”
Transactions, Am. Soc. Civil Engrs.
, Vol.
59
,
1907
, p. 154.
7.
Morris
M.
, “
The Mortar Voids Method of Designing Concrete Mixtures
,”
Journal, Am. Concrete Inst.
, September, 1932;
Proceedings
, Vol.
29
, p. 9.
8.
Thornburn
T. H.
, “
The Design of Concrete Mixes Containing Entrained Air
,”
Proceedings. Am. Soc. Testing Mats.
, Vol.
49
,
1949
, p. 921.
9.
Paul
Ira
, “
Chloride Salts Resistant Concrete in Pavements
,”
Proceedings, Am. Association Highway Officials of the North Atlantic States
, February, 1938, p. 144.
10.
Avery
W. M.
, “
Portland Cement Association, 45 Years of Outstanding Service to Industry
,”
Pit and Quarry
, July, 1947, p. 87.
11.
Moore
O. L.
, “
Pavement Scaling Successfully Checked
,”
Engineering News-Record
,
10
10
1940
, p. 61.
12.
Jackson
F. H.
, “
Concretes Containing Air-Entraining Agents
,”
Journal, Am. Concrete Inst.
, June, 1944;
Proceedings
, Vol.
40
, p. 509. (An account of Kansas Highway Department experience, 1934).
13.
Vollmer
H. C.
, “
Effect of CaCl2 on Water Requirement, Specific Weight, and Compressive Strength of Concrete Made with Plain and Treated Cement
,”
Proceedings, Highway Research Board
, Vol.
23
,
1943
, p. 296.
14.
Pigman
G. L.
, “
Vacuum Method of Measuring Air Content of Fresh Concrete
,”
Journal, Am. Concrete Inst.
, November, 1941;
Proceedings
, Vol.
38
, p. 121.
15.
Gonnerman
H. F.
,
Research Report
,
Portland Cement Assn.
, Feb. 1 to July 31, 1943.
16.
McCall
J. T.
and
Claus
R. J.
, “
Effect of Pellet and Flake Forms of Calcium Chloride in Concrete
,” Bulletin 75,
Highway Research Board
,
1953
.
17.
Bugg
S. L.
, “
Effect of Air Entrainment on the Durability Characteristics of Concrete Aggregates
,”
Proceedings, Highway Research Board
, Vol.
27
,
1947
, p. 156.
18.
Axon
E. O.
,
Willis
T. F.
, and
Reagel
F. V.
, “
Effect of Air-Entrapping Portland Cement on the Resistance to Freezing and Thawing of Concrete Containing Inferior Coarse Aggregate
,”
Proceedings, Am. Soc. Testing Mats.
, Vol.
43
,
1943
, p. 981.
19.
Swanberg
J. H.
and
Thomas
T. W.
;
Klein
Alexander
,
Pirtz
David
, and
Schweizer
C. B.
;
Cordon
W. A.
and
Brewer
H. W.
; and
Pearson
J. C.
,
Symposium on Measurement of Entrained Air in Concrete, Proceedings, Am. Soc. Testing Mats.
, Vol.
47
,
1947
, pp. 871, 884, 894, 918.
20.
Gregg
L. E.
, “
Experiments with Air Entrained in Cement Concrete
,” Bulletin No. 5,
Engineering Experiment Station, University of Kentucky
,
Lexington, Ky.
,
1947
.
21.
Vellines
R. P.
and
Ason
T.
, “
A Method for Determining the Air Content of Fresh and Hardened Concrete
,”
Journal, Am. Concrete Inst.
, May, 1949;
Proceedings
, Vol.
45
, p. 665.
22.
Lindsay
J. D.
, “
Illinois Develops High Pressure Air Meter for Determining the Air Content of Hardened Concrete
,”
Proceedings, Highway Research Board
, Vol.
35
,
1956
, p. 424 and discussion by T. B. Kennedy, p. 434.
23.
McCoy
,
E. E.
 Jr.
, “
High Pressure Test for Determining Air Content of Hardened Concrete
,”
WES Miscellaneous Paper
No. 6-286,
U.S. Army Corps of Engrs., Waterways Experiment Station
, October, 1958.
24.
Erlin
B.
, “
Air Content of Concrete by a High-Pressure Method
,” Bulletin 149,
Research Dept., Portland Cement Assn.
, (Journal, September, 1962).
25.
Dykins
F. A.
and
Blandin
F. H.
, “
Field and Laboratory Air-Content Studies of Salt-Damaged Concrete Structures
,”
Research on Aggregate, Cement, Concrete, and Epoxy Bonding, Highway Research Record 62
, Publication 1246,
Highway Research Board
, December, 1964.
26.
Sweet
H. S.
, discussion, “
Air-Entrained Concrete (Durability)
,”
Proceedings, Highway Research Board
, Vol.
28
,
1948
, p. 187.
27.
Sweet
H. S.
, “
Research on Concrete Durability as Affected by Coarse Aggregates
,”
Proceedings, Am. Soc. Testing Mats.
, Vol.
48
,
1948
, p. 988.
28.
Bloem
D. L.
and
Walker
S.
, “
Studies of Concrete Containing Entrained Air
,” (Series 66)
Journal, Am. Concrete Inst.
, June, 1946;
Proceedings
, Vol.
42
, p. 629.
29.
Loss of Entrained Air in Freshly Mixed Concrete and Effect on Properties of Hardened Concrete
,” Report No. C-431,
Materials Laboratories, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation
, May, 1949.
30.
Mielenz
R. C.
,
Wolkodoff
V. E.
,
Backstrom
J. E.
, and
Flack
H. L.
, “
Origin, Evolution, and Effects of the Air Void System in Concrete, Part I, Entrained Air in Unhardened Concrete
,”
Journal, Am. Concrete Inst.
, July, 1958;
Proceedings
, Vol.
55
, p. 95.
31.
Bruere
G. M.
, “
Rearrangement of Bubble Sizes in Air-Entrained Cement Pastes During Setting
,”
Australian Journal of Applied Science
, Vol.
13
, No.
3
, September, 1962, p. 222.
32.
Powers
T. C.
, “
Topics in Concrete Technology 4. Characteristics of Air Void Systems
,” Bulletin 174,
Research Dept., Portland Cement Assn.
, (Journal, January, 1965).
33.
Verbeck
G. J.
, “
The Camera-Lucida Method for Measuring Air Voids in Hardened Concrete
,”
Journal, Am. Concrete Inst.
,, May, 1947;
Proceedings
, Vol.
43
, p. 1025, also discussion.
34.
Klieger
P.
, “
Effect of Entrained Air on Concrete with ‘Sand-Gravel
Aggregates,” Journal, Am. Concrete Inst.
, October, 1948;
Proceedings
, Vol.
45
, p. 149.
35.
Brown
L. S.
and
Pierson
C. U.
, “
Linear Traverse Technique for Measurement of Air in Hardened Concrete
,”
Journal, Am. Concrete Inst.
, October, 1950;
Proceedings
, Vol.
47
, p. 117, also discussion.
36.
Warren
C.
, “
Determination of the Properties of Air Voids in Concrete
,” Bulletin No. 70,
Highway Research Board
,
1953
.
37.
Blackman
J. S.
, “
Method of Estimating Water Content of Concrete at the Time of Hardening
,”
Journal, Am. Concrete Inst.
, March, 1954;
Proceedings
, Vol.
50
, p. 533.
38.
Axon
E. O.
, “
A Method of Estimating the Original Mix Composition of Hardened Concrete Using Physical Tests
,”
Proceedings, Am. Soc. Testing Mats.
, Vol.
62
,
1962
, p. 1068.
39.
Hansen
W. C.
, “
Influence of Sands, Cements, and Manipulation Upon the Resistance of Concrete to Freezing and Thawing
,”
Journal, Am. Concrete Inst.
, November, 1942;
Proceedings
, Vol.
39
, p. 105, also discussion.
40.
Klieger
P.
, “
Effect of Entrained Air on Strength and Durability of Concrete Made with Various Maximum Sizes of Aggregates
,”
Proceedings, Highway Research Board
, Vol.
31
,
1952
, p. 177; further studies, Vol. 34, 1955.
41.
Gilkey
H. J.
, “
The Zig-Zag Course of Concrete Progress
,”
Journal, Am. Concrete Inst.
, April, 1950;
Proceedings
, Vol.
46
, p. 573.
42.
Swayze
M. A.
, “
Less Sand and Water in Air-Entraining Batches Improves Concrete
,”
Civil Engineering
, July, 1946, Vol.
16
, No.
7
, p. 302.
43.
Helms
S. B.
and
Bowman
A. L.
, “
Method of Making Vibrated Dry-Tamp Concrete Cylinders Applied to Tests of Lightweight Aggregate and Block Mixtures
,”
Proceedings, Am. Soc. Testing Mats.
, Vol.
51
,
1951
, p. 1184.
44.
Klock
M. B.
, “
Monolithic and Bonded Floor Finishes
,”
Journal, Am. Concrete Inst.
, June, 1949;
Proceedings
, Vol.
45
, p. 725, also discussion.
45.
Wendt
K. F.
and
Woodworth
P. M.
, “
Tests on Concrete Masonry Units Using Tamping and Vibration Molding Methods
,”
Journal, Am. Concrete Inst.
, November, 1939;
Proceedings
, Vol.
36
, p. 121, also discussion.
46.
Valore
,
R. C.
 Jr.
, “
Cellular Concretes
,”
Journal, Am. Concrete Inst.
, May, June, 1954;
Proceedings
, Vol.
50
, pp. 773, 817.
47.
Petersen
P. H.
, Building Materials and Structures Report BMS 96,
Nat. Bureau Standards
,
1943
.
Valore
R. C.
and
Green
W. C.
, “
Air Replaces Sand in ‘No-Fines’ Concrete
,”
Journal, Am. Concrete Inst.
, June, 1951;
Proceedings
, Vol.
47
, p. 833.
48.
Kluge
R. W.
,
Sparks
M. M.
, and
Tuma
E. C.
, “
Lightweight-Aggregate Concrete
,”
Journal, Am. Concrete Inst.
, May, 1949;
Proceedings
, Vol.
45
, p. 625, also discussion.
49.
Keyser
C. C.
, “
Designing Concrete for Weight of 271 Pounds Per Cubic Foot
,”
Journal, Am. Concrete Inst.
, April, 1932;
Proceedings
, Vol.
28
, p. 525.
50.
Callan
E. J.
, “
Concrete for Radiation Shielding
,”
Journal, Am. Concrete Inst.
, September, 1953;
Proceedings
, Vol.
50
, p. 17.
51.
Journal of Commerce
,
19
12
1942
.
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