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ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Significance of Tests and Properties of Concrete and Concrete-Making Materials
By
R. C. Mielenz
R. C. Mielenz
1
The Master Builders Co.
, Division of Martin Marietta,
Cleveland, Ohio, chairman
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D. L. Bloem
D. L. Bloem
2
Nat. Ready Mixed Concrete Assn. and Nat. Sand and Gravel Assn.
,
Washington, D.C.
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L. E. Gregg
L. E. Gregg
3
Associates, Inc.
,
Lexington, Ky.
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L. E. Gregg
L. E. Gregg
3
Associates, Inc.
,
Lexington, Ky.
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C. E. Kesler
C. E. Kesler
4
University of Illinois
,
Urbana, Ill.
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W. H. Price
W. H. Price
5
Am. Cement Corp.
,
Los Angeles, Calif.
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ISBN:
978-0-8031-8109-0
No. of Pages:
582
Publisher:
ASTM International
Publication date:
1966

Portland cement concrete is an ideal material for use in construction of radiation shields. Although there are other materials that could be employed for radiation shielding purposes, concrete is not only economical, but it also has the advantage of being a material that can be cast into any desired homogeneous structural shape. Concrete is now commonly used for shielding of atomic research facilities, nuclear power plants, and for radiation medical and research units or equipment. Conventional concrete of sufficient thickness can be and is being used for such purposes. However, where usable space is a major consideration, the reduction in the thickness of the shield is accomplished by the use of high-density concretes. Such high-density concretes, produced by the use of heavy aggregates, will usually have a unit weight ranging from 210 to 240 lb/ft,3 which is about 50 per cent higher than the unit weight of conventional concrete. They can, however, be produced with densities up to about 330 lb/ft3 using iron as both fine and coarse aggregate. For certain types of biological shields there is a need to include materials of low atomic weight in the concrete. At present there are no ASTM test methods or specifications for concrete or concrete-making materials written specifically for biological shield applications. However, several of the existing ASTM methods and specifications pertaining to concrete and concrete-making materials are applicable to shielding concretes. Specific references to some of these methods and to their applicability are covered later herein.

1.
Callan
E. J.
, “
Concrete for Radiation Shielding
,”
Proceedings, Am. Concrete Inst.
, Vol.
50
,
1954
, pp. 17–44.
2.
Foster
B. E.
, “
Absorption by Concrete of X-rays and Gamma Rays
,”
Proceedings, Am. Concrete Inst.
, Vol.
50
,
1954
, pp. 45–63.
3.
Permissible Dose from External Sources of Ironizing Radiation
,”
NBS Handbook 59
,
Nat. Bureau Standards
,
24
09
1954
, and insert dated Jan. 8, 1957.
4.
Protection Against Neutron Radiation Up to 30 Million Electron Volts
,”
NBS Handbook 63
,
Nat. Bureau Standards
,
22
11
1957
.
5.
Wollenberg
H. A.
and
Smith
A. R.
, “
Low-Background Concrete
,”
Transactions, Am. Nuclear Soc.
, Vol.
8
, No.
1
, May, 1965, p. 183 (summary only). Paper presented at the 1965 annual meeting of the Am. Nuclear Soc., Gatlinburg, Tenn., 1965. Also in report form: UCRL-11674, Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, Calif., Sept. 18, 1964.
6.
Komarovskii
A. N.
, “
Shielding Materials for Nuclear Reactors
,” translated from Russian by V. M. Newton,
Pergamon Press
,
London
,
1961
, p. 145.
7.
Davis
H. S.
, “
Concrete for Shielding, Nuclear Radiations
,”
Progress Report, Committee on Nuclear Structures and Materials, Proceedings, Am. Society Civil Engrs.
, Vol.
88
, No.
ST 1
, February, 1962, Part I, Paper 3062, 1962.
8.
Henri
J. O.
, “
Properties of Nuclear Shielding Concrete
,”
Proceedings, Am. Concrete Inst.
, Vol.
56
,
1960
, pp. 37–46.
9.
High-Strength, High-Density Concrete
,”
Technical Report
No. 6-635,
Corps of Engrs., Waterways Experiment Station
, November, 1963, p. 65.
10.
Davis
H. S.
, “
Aggregates for Radiation-Shielding Concrete
,”
Transactions, Am. Nuclear Soc.
, Vol.
8
, No.
1
, May, 1965, p. 178 (summary only), paper presented at the 1965 annual meeting of the Am. Nuclear Soc., Gatlinburg, Tenn., 1965.
11.
Mather
Katharine
, “
Application of Petrography to Radiation-Shielding Concrete
,”
Transactions, Am. Nuclear Soc.
, Vol.
8
, No.
1
, May, 1965, pp. 177–178, paper presented at the 1965 annual meeting of the Am. Nuclear Soc., Gatlinburg, Tenn., 1965.
12.
Raphael
J. M.
, “
Structural Properties of Magnetite Concrete
,”
Proceedings, Am. Society Civil Engrs.
, Vol.
84
, No.
ST 1
, January, 1958, Paper 1511, 1958.
13.
Davis
H. S.
, “
High-Density Concrete for Shielding Atomic Energy Plants
,”
Proceedings, Am. Concrete Inst.
, Vol.
54
,
1958
, pp. 965–977.
14.
Washington
W. O.
, “
Design Requirements of Shielding Concrete
,”
Transactions, Am. Nuclear Soc.
, Vol.
8
, No.
1
, May, 1965, pp. 176–177 (summary only), paper presented at the 1965 annual meeting of the Am. Nuclear Soc., Gatlinburg, Tenn., 1965.
15.
Lott
J. L.
and
Kesler
C. E.
, “
Problems of Hardened Concrete
,”
Transactions, Am. Nuclear Soc.
, Vol.
8
, No.
1
, May, 1965, pp. 178–179 (summary only), paper presented at the 1965 annual meeting of the Am. Nuclear Soc., Gatlinburg, Tenn., 1965.
16.
Mather
Katharine
, “
High Strength, High Density Concrete
,”
Proceedings, Am. Concrete Inst.
, Vol.
62
,
1965
, pp. 951–962.
17.
Davis
H. S.
, “
Thermal Considerations in the Design of Concrete Shields
,”
Proceedings, Am. Society Civil Engrs.
, Vol.
84
, No.
ST 5
, September, 1958, Paper 1755, 1958.
18.
Davis
H. S.
, “
Effects of High-Temperature Exposure of Concrete
,”
Transactions, Am. Nuclear Soc.
, Vol.
8
, No.
1
, May, 1965, p. 182 (summary only), paper presented at the 1965 annual meeting of the Am. Nuclear Soc., Gatlinburg, Tenn., 1965.
19.
Davis
H. S.
, “
Concrete Shields—Their Preparation and Use
,”
General Electric Review
, Vol.
59
, No.
6
, June, 1956, pp. 43–45.
20.
Davis
H. S.
, “
High-Density Concrete for Reactor Construction
,”
Civil Engineering
, Vol.
26
, No.
6
, June, 1956, pp. 52–56.
21.
Davis
H. S.
,
Brown
F. L.
, and
Witter
H. C.
, “
Properties of High-Density Concrete Made with Iron Aggregate
,”
Proceedings, Am. Concrete Inst.
, Vol.
52
,
1956
, pp. 705–726.
22.
Davis
H. S.
, “
Cement and Aggregates for Shielding in Atomic Energy Plants
,”
Mining Engineering
, Vol.
9
, No.
5
, May, 1957, pp. 544–548.
23.
Davis
H. S.
and
Borge
O. E.
, “
High-Density Concrete Made with Hydrous-Iron Aggregates
,”
Proceedings, Am. Concrete Inst.
. Vol.
55
,
1959
, pp. 1141–1147.
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