11R12. Turbulent Flow: Analysis, Measurement, and Prediction. - PS Bernard and JM Wallace (Univ of Maryland, College Park MD). Wiley, Hoboken, NJ. 2002. 497 pp. ISBN 0-471-33219-4. $100.00.
Reviewed by S Yavuzkurt (Dept of Mech Eng, Penn State Univ, 201B Reber Bldg, University Park PA 16802).
This is an excellent book in the area of turbulence analysis, measurement, and predictions, as its title implies. It supplies many aspects of the topic from theory to experiments and helps the reader to see the subject as a whole. It contains cutting edge material in the most fascinating field of turbulence as well as up to date presentations of major theoretical and experimental advances. State-of-the-art turbulence closure and simulations techniques are also included. This book will help greatly in understanding more advanced books and classical and current research articles in this field.
The book contains 12 chapters and it is about 500 pages long. An extensive reference list is given. Figures are drawn very clearly and they are very useful in interpretation of the results of the analysis carried out in the book. Detailed derivations of the equations are given with examples.
Chapters 1 and 2 contain preliminary and also principal concepts in understanding turbulent incompressible flows and an overview of turbulent flow physics and equations including notation, averaging, correlations, Reynolds-averaged momentum, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), dissipation and Reynolds stress transport equations, spectral analysis, scales of turbulence, vorticity, and turbulent and molecular transport equations for scalars. It is a nice and compact review of these concepts.
Chapter 3 is on experimental and numerical methods in general. It goes into the main techniques used in experiments and how turbulent flows could be simulated on a computer. Experimental topics include hot wire and hot film anemometry—from theory to type of probes used, laser-Doppler velocimetry, laser sheets, particle image velocimetry, and concentration measurement methods. Numerical methods are explained and applications to calculation of flow in a cubical domain and channel flow are given.
Chapter 4 discusses properties of bounded turbulent flows. Topics covered include fully developed channel and pipe flows and boundary layers. Discussion includes basics, Reynolds stresses, TKE and its dissipation, scaling factors, power laws, low speed streaks, bursts, space correlations, experimental visualization, and dynamics of vortex stretching. It is an excellent coverage on these topics.
Chapter 5 deals with properties of free shear flows such as jets, wakes, and mixing layers. Similarity solutions, velocity and vorticity fluctuations, TKE budget, and structure of these flows are covered in detail.
Chapter 6 explains turbulent transport and physics of transport as it is related to Reynolds stresses vorticity flux correlations. Details on Reynolds stress production and vorticity dynamics are very interesting and useful.
Chapter 7 concentrates on theory of idealized turbulent flows such as isotropic and homogeneous turbulence. Homogeneous flows include cases of no production and a flow with uniform TKE production. Concepts of isotropy, energy decay, turbulent Reynolds number, self-similarity, isotropic decay, high Reynolds number equilibrium, self-preservation, von Ka´rma´n-Howarth equation, implications on turbulence modeling, and Fourier analysis of the velocity fields are explained in a clear fashion.
Chapter 8 contains all practical important field of turbulence modeling. Types of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models include eddy viscosity, one and two equation and Reynolds stress transport, algebraic stress, and vorticity transport models. Modeling constraints, generalized constitutive models, pressure-strain correlations, second order moment closure, wall functions, near-wall k-ε and Reynolds stress models are discussed.
Chapter 9 covers the applications of turbulence models to channel flows, zero pressure gradient boundary layers, flow separation including backward facing step, hill flow, diffuser flows, and stagnation point flows. Effects of rotation and curvature are also covered.
Chapter 10 deals with the more recent large eddy simulations (LES). Filters, filtered equations and their solutions, numerical considerations, subgrid scale models such as Smagorinsky model, and alternative subgrid scale models and dynamic models are all covered. Applications of LES, vortex methods, vortex elements, dynamic equations and sample results from vortex methods and LES are included.
Chapter 11 deals with analysis of turbulent scalar fields. These topics include plumes, turbulent puff, point source plumes, scalar transport and its models, closure schemes, and random flight models.
Chapter 12 concludes the book with turbulence theory, which covers topics from the early days to the current theories. Gaussian random fields, overview of the theories, direct interaction approximations, renormalization group theories, and thermodynamics of vortex systems make very thought-provoking reading.
Overall, Turbulent Flow: Analysis, Measurement, and Prediction, is an invaluable educational and research tool in the area of turbulence. It is an essential book for researchers, instructors, and students who work in the area of turbulent heat, mass, and momentum transport which includes mechanical and aerospace engineers, physicists, and mathematicians, and scientists in the fields of chemistry, biological sciences, and ocean engineering. It will be a valuable addition to the libraries of universities and research institutions. It is strongly recommended by this reviewer.