5R46. Thermal Management of Microelectronic Equipment: Heat Transfer Theory, Analysis Methods, and Design Practices. ASME Press Book Series on Electronic Packaging. - Lian-Tua Yeh (Lockheed Martin Vought Syst, Propulsion and Thermodynamics, PO Box 650003, MS SP-97, Dallas TX 75265-0003) and RC Chu (Dept AYJB, M/S P520, IBM Corp, 522 South Rd, Poughkeepsie NY 12601). ASME International, New York. 2002. 414 pp. ISBN 0-7918-0168-3. ASME Book No 801683. $95.00. (ASME members $76.00).
Reviewed by WS Janna (Herff Col of Eng, Univ of Memphis, 201E Eng Admin, Memphis TN 38152).
This text is published by ASME, and is part of the ASME Press Book Series on Electronic Packaging. The series covers a broad range of topics ranging from electronic cooling to thermally induced stress and vibration. The authors are both Fellows of ASME.
In the preface of the text, the authors describe the challenges that exist in the field of thermal management of electronic systems. The objective in such systems is to have high performance, high heat dissipation devices. The authors acknowledge that no one design method is best suited for all applications. Because it is common to employ several different heat transfer modes simultaneously, the authors provide a wide range of subjects in the text that are related to various heat transfer technologies.
Following the preface is a five-page list of figures, and a two-page list of tables that appear in the text. A three-page nomenclature section is also included. The nomenclature list gives symbols, definitions, and units. The units found in the nomenclature table, however, are engineering units, and this seems unusual given ASME’s policy “that SI units of measurement be included in all papers, publications, and ASME Codes and Standards (see http://www.asme.org/pubs/bodyelem.html). Even so, the absence of SI units in the nomenclature list in no way detracts from the usefulness of this text.
The authors have tried to keep higher level mathematics to a minimum and concentrate more on getting the reader to understand the physics of each topic. Traditional heat transfer topics are covered in Chapters 2–8, while the remaining chapters discuss practical applications of heat transfer from electronic systems.
The first chapter provides an introduction to the main focus of the text as stated in the title: Thermal Management of Microelectronic Equipment. The need for reliable thermal control in electronic equipment is discussed, as is the importance of optimization and determination of life cycle costs.
As with most texts that address applications of heat transfer, the first few chapters (2–8 in this text) discuss traditional heat transfer subjects. Chapter 2 is about Conduction. Topics include: the general differential equations for conduction, one-dimensional conduction, thermal-electrical analogy, and lumped system transient analysis.
Chapter 3 is about Convection, with sections on flow and temperature fields, the heat transfer coefficient, thermal properties of fluids, and convection correlations. Chapter 4 continues with Radiation Heat Transfer. Discussed in this chapter are the Stefan-Boltzmann Law, Kirchhoff’s Law, emissivity, as well as black and gray surfaces.
The typical boiling curve is presented and discussed in Chapter 5, on Pool Boiling. Nucleate boiling is described and associated correlations are given. Correlations for critical heat flux are also given. Parameters that affect pool boiling (including gravity) are covered. Chapter 6 continues with Flow Boiling. Flow patterns, boiling crisis, and thermal enhancement are all addressed.
In Chapter 7, which is about Condensation, modes of condensation are the very first topic. Specific problems include filmwise condensation on a vertical surface, and condensation inside a horizontal tube. Chapter 8 is about Extended Surfaces, in which fins of uniform cross section are described and modeled mathematically using classical approaches. Fin efficiency as well as selection and design of fins are both covered.
Chapter 9 is on Thermal Surface Resistance and the factors that have an effect on it. Joint thermal contact resistance is discussed, as are methods of reducing it. Solder and epoxy joints are also covered here, and some practical design data are provided.
Chapter 10 finally takes the reader to Electrical Components and Printed Circuit Boards. Chip packaging, thermal resistance, and attachment methods are all described. Cooling methods and a thermal analysis for boards are also included. Chapter 11 is about direct air-cooling and fans. Heat transfer and pressure drop correlations are provided for electronic systems in which air is used as the cooling medium.
Chapter 12 is about Natural and Mixed Convection Systems. Parallel plates, straight fin arrays, pin fin arrays, and enclosures are all covered. A number of correlations are provided in equation form with data trends displayed graphically.
In Chapter 13, on Heat Exchangers and Cold Plates, compact heat exchangers are described and their performance modeled. Other topics relevant to compact heat exchangers that are included here are: flow arrangements, overall heat transfer coefficient, effectiveness, pressure drop, and geometric factors. Correlations for modeling compact heat exchangers are also provided.
Chapter 14 is titled Advanced Cooling Technologies I: Single Phase Cooling. It addresses cooling selection, natural convection and forced convection applications where there is cooling without phase change. Chapter 15, Advanced Cooling Technologies II: Two Phase Flow Cooling continues with the definition of Figure of Merit, direct immersion cooling, and flow boiling, among other topics.
In Chapter 16, on Heat Pipes, an excellent description is given of how they operate, how they are constructed, operational limits, operating temperatures, and applications. Micro heat pipes are also described.
Chapter 17 on Thermoelectric Coolers is the last chapter of the text. Basic theory of thermoelectricity is presented, which is exactly the same theory that applies to thermocouples. Figure of merit as applied to thermoelectric coolers is defined, and operating principles are described. Performance analysis and practical design procedures are also given.
The book also includes nine Appendices. These are thermal properties of materials, properties of various fluids, emissivities and absorptivities of material surfaces, properties of phase change materials, friction factor and heat transfer correlations, and unit conversion tables.
References used by the authors are given at the end of each chapter, and these seem complete. There are several example problems solved throughout the text, but there are no practice problems provided at the end of each chapter. The emphasis of this text is on providing the reader with specific design information needed for electronic cooling, rather than on producing a textbook for use in the classroom.
Following the appendices is a seven-page index. The index of this text might be considered a bit lengthy, but it is rather complete. It is prepared in a single-spaced, two column format, and there is an absence of entries that refer the reader to another entry.
The text is over 400 pages and contains numerous drawings, graphs, and useful, as well as practical, correlations. It provides the reader with specific information that can be used to thermally manage microelectronic equipment, as the title suggests.
Thermal Management of Microelectronic Equipment: Heat Transfer Theory, Analysis Methods, and Design Practices is readable and very clearly written. The material would appeal to anyone working with microelectronic equipment in any capacity, as well as to the engineer or researcher who wishes to design a cooling system for microelectronic equipment. This book would make an excellent addition to any personal or reference library.