Extreme events are of great interest in engineering and natural sciences since they can have severe consequences. The occurrence and intensity of these events are difficult to predict since they are generated by complex physical mechanics which, usually, are partially understood and random. The authors present a most useful review on the characterization and prediction of extreme events which include mechanisms which trigger extreme events, real-time prediction, mitigation, and statistical methods to characterize such events. The focus of their study is on the mechanisms of extreme events which are illustrated by interesting examples and the construction of indicators which signal upcoming extreme events.

We briefly discuss two aspects of extreme events to supplement the review in Ref. [1]. The first is on extremes of states of simple dynamical systems caused by random inputs with heavy tails. The second is on the use of...

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