This paper aims at presenting a survey of the fractional derivative acoustic wave equations, which have been developed in recent decades to describe the observed frequency-dependent attenuation and scattering of acoustic wave propagating through complex media. The derivation of these models and their underlying elastoviscous constitutive relationships are reviewed, and the successful applications and numerical simulations are also highlighted. The different fractional derivative acoustic wave equations characterizing viscous dissipation are analyzed and compared with each other, along with the connections and differences between these models. These model equations are mainly classified into two categories: temporal and spatial fractional derivative models. The statistical interpretation for the range of power-law indices is presented with the help of Lévy stable distribution. In addition, the fractional derivative biharmonic wave equations governing scattering attenuation are introduced and can be viewed as a generalization of viscous dissipative attenuation models.

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