A comprehensive review of current analytical models, experimental techniques, and influencing factors is carried out to highlight the current challenges in this area. The study of fluid–solid boundary conditions has been ongoing for more than a century, starting from gas–solid interfaces and progressing to that of the more complex liquid–solid case. Breakthroughs have been made on the theoretical and experimental fronts but the mechanism behind the phenomena remains a puzzle. This paper provides a review of the theoretical models, and numerical and experimental investigations that have been carried out till date. Probable mechanisms and factors that affect the interfacial discontinuity are also documented.

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