Research on the von Kármán boundary layer extends back almost 100 years but remains a topic of active study, which continues to reveal new results; it is only now that fully nonlinear direct numerical simulations (DNS) have been conducted of the flow to compare with theoretical and experimental results. The von Kármán boundary layer, or rotating-disk boundary layer, provides, in some senses, a simple three-dimensional boundary-layer model with which to compare other more complex flow configurations but we will show that in fact the rotating-disk boundary layer itself exhibits a wealth of complex instability behaviors that are not yet fully understood.

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