The commentary by Professor Jan Eijkel provides a quite broad review on the topic of nanoscale fluid mechanics and energy conversion, touching comprehensively on the “root-domains” of nanofluidics as well as the nanofluidic phenomena found in nature and many other synthetic systems. The discussion is an important addition to our original review, which was intended to be more focused on our own contributions to the field. The closure here is aimed to continue the discussion by emphasizing several opportunities and challenges for future development in this field [1].

Nanoscale fluid mechanics (or nanofluidics) referred herein focuses on the physical behavior of fluids confined in structures of nanometer lengths (<100 nm) in one or more dimensions. The characteristic length of such an extremely small confinement (L) is usually very close to the physical scaling lengths of the fluids (e.g., molecular mean free...

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