The approach of Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations (RANS) for the modeling of turbulent flows is reviewed. The subject is mainly considered in the limit of incompressible flows with constant properties. After the introduction of the concept of Reynolds decomposition and averaging, different classes of RANS turbulence models are presented, and, in particular, zero-equation models, one-equation models (besides a half-equation model), two-equation models (with reference to the tensor representation used for a model, both linear and nonlinear models are considered), stress-equation models (with reference to the pressure-strain correlation, both linear and nonlinear models are considered) and algebraic-stress models. For each of the abovementioned class of models, the most widely-used modeling techniques and closures are reported. The unsteady RANS approach is also discussed and a section is devoted to hybrid RANS/large methods.

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