A survey is provided of the various constitutive models that have been used to study the phenomena of wave propagation in soils. While different material models have been proposed for the response of soils, it is now generally understood that no single model may be used over the entire range of pressures which are typically studied. The constitutive models reviewed in this paper include a number of effective stress and multiphase models, the volume distribution function model, and various versions of the Pα model. Also discussed are classical elastic-plastic models, models possessing different elastic constants in loading and unloading, variable modulus models, and capped elastic-plastic models.

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