This review article gives an overview of some topics related to classical and modern problems in the theory of heat, its meaning for various branches, and thermal management of equipment. The specific requirements for new technologies involved in the thermal operation of miniaturized instruments, components of equipment, devices, units operating in fast-response regimes, improvement of heat resistance, reliability, and endurance are considered. Special requirements have been put forward for nanotechnologies, where engineering parts, elements of devices, and technological equipment have microscopic and submicroscopic dimensions. Also, the stringent requirements of thermal modes of modern large-scale technologies in such branches of industry as nuclear power engineering and rocket-space engineering have become more important and determining. The thermal modes of these technologies call for new approaches to the design of the thermodynamic state of micro- and macrosystems, high-temperature plasma, and cryogenic temperatures. New results of the study of the mechanism of heat transfer in phase transitions, principally in new approaches to the problem of enhancement of heat transfer in one- and two-phase flows are presented. The importance of studies of thermal processes providing reliable thermal modes of new power plants, microsystems, and nanotechnologies is shown. The significance of advances in the study of thermal processes for developing the theory of heat is discussed. Especially considered are achievements in the theory of heat for its role in the decisions of actual problems of biology, medicine, and environment. This review article cites 105 references, most of them in Russian.

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