Hydraulic transients in closed conduits have been a subject of both theoretical study and intense practical interest for more than one hundred years. While straightforward in terms of the one-dimensional nature of pipe networks, the full description of transient fluid flows pose interesting problems in fluid dynamics. For example, the response of the turbulence structure and strength to transient waves in pipes and the loss of flow axisymmetry in pipes due to hydrodynamic instabilities are currently not understood. Yet, such understanding is important for modeling energy dissipation and water quality in transient pipe flows. This paper presents an overview of both historic developments and present day research and practice in the field of hydraulic transients. In particular, the paper discusses mass and momentum equations for one-dimensional Flows, wavespeed, numerical solutions for one-dimensional problems, wall shear stress models; two-dimensional mass and momentum equations, turbulence models, numerical solutions for two-dimensional problems, boundary conditions, transient analysis software, and future practical and research needs in water hammer. The presentation emphasizes the assumptions and restrictions involved in various governing equations so as to illuminate the range of applicability as well as the limitations of these equations. Understanding the limitations of current models is essential for (i) interpreting their results, (ii) judging the reliability of the data obtained from them, (iii) minimizing misuse of water-hammer models in both research and practice, and (iv) delineating the contribution of physical processes from the contribution of numerical artifacts to the results of waterhammer models. There are 134 refrences cited in this review article.
A Review of Water Hammer Theory and Practice
Transmitted by Associate Editor HJS Fernando.
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Ghidaoui, M. S., Zhao, M., McInnis, D. A., and Axworthy, D. H. (March 8, 2005). "A Review of Water Hammer Theory and Practice ." ASME. Appl. Mech. Rev. January 2005; 58(1): 49–76. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1828050
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