Previous reviews of the behavior of passive scalars which are convected and mixed by turbulent flows have focused primarily on the case when the Prandtl number Pr, or more generally, the Schmidt number Sc is around 1. The present review considers the extra effects which arise when Sc differs from 1. It focuses mainly on information obtained from direct numerical simulations of homogeneous isotropic turbulence which either decays or is maintained in steady state. The first case is of interest since it has attracted significant theoretical attention and can be related to decaying turbulence downstream of a grid. Topics covered in the review include spectra and structure functions of the scalar, the topology and isotropy of the small-scale scalar field, as well as the correlation between the fluctuating rate of strain and the scalar dissipation rate. In each case, the emphasis is on the dependence with respect to Sc. There are as yet unexplained differences between results on forced and unforced simulations of homogeneous isotropic turbulence. There are 144 references cited in this review article.

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