Experiments and direct numerical simulations on simple flows have been performed to examine the attenuation of gas-phase turbulence by fine particles. The experiments were performed in a developing boundary layer and in a fully developed channel flow. Both showed significant turbulence attenuation for mass loading ratios greater than 10%. Numerical simulations on homogeneous/isotropic turbulence show similar levels of turbulence attenuation. Both experiments and simulations have demonstrated the importance of preferential concentration in which particles are collected in highly strained regions of the flow. Two-equation models for turbulence attenuation have been found to be inadequate when preferential concentration occurs.

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