Major contributions to machining and grinding research in the US came in the twentieth century. The seminal work by Frederick Winslow Taylor on the Art of Cutting Metals published in 1907 was the beginning of a series of serious and systematic studies on the various aspects of metal cutting and grinding in this century. This monumental work, which became an American classic, continues to inspire many a researcher in this field even today. It was followed by the works of other pioneers, including Orlan W Boston, Hans Ernst, M E Martellotti, Max Kronenberg, M Eugene Merchant, Milton C Shaw, Michael Field, John Kahles, K J Roubik, K Armitage, Ken Trigger, B T Chao, Alfred Schmidt, William W Gilbert, Fran Boulger, Lester Colwell, Carl Oxford, Erich Thomsen, Robert Hahn, and many others. Many of the associates of the pioneers including Nathan Cook, Iain Finnie, B F von Turkovich, Shiro Kobayaski, Inyong Ham, E Loewen, and others including W B Rice, S M Wu, and J Tlusty have made significant contributions to these fields in their own right. There is no doubt that this century will be heralded by the historians as the golden age of metal cutting and grinding research, particularly the period between 1940 and 1960. It was, however, M Eugene Merchant’s paper on the Basic Mechanics of the Metal Cutting Process in 1945 that took a giant step from the art of metal cutting to the science of metal cutting. This work laid the foundation for much of the work that is practiced today. It can be stated unequivocally that because of the significant contributions by the pioneers and their associates, metal cutting and grinding research today is rich in its heritage and contents, and has contributed towards the improvement of manufacturing productivity. It has thereby facilitated the improvement of living standards around the world. In this review, the following ten topics are addressed briefly: Physics of Machining; Mechanics of Machining; Shear and Friction in Machining; Thermal Aspects of Machining and Grinding; Tool Materials, Tool Wear, and Machinability; Multiple Cutting Points; Grinding; Vibrations in Machining; Surface Integrity; and Economics of Machining.

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