Fatigue resistance is crucial for the engineering application of metals. Polycrystalline metals with highly oriented nanotwins have been shown to exhibit a history-independent, stable, and symmetric cyclic response [Pan et al., 2017, Nature 551, pp. 214-217]. However, a constitutive model that incorporates the cyclic deformation mechanism of highly oriented nanotwinned metals is currently lacking. This study aims to develop a physically based model to describe the plastic deformation of highly oriented nanotwinned metals under cyclic loading parallel to the twin boundaries. The theoretical analysis is conducted based on non-uniform distribution of twin boundary spacing measured by experiments. During cyclic plasticity, each twin lamella is discretely regarded as a perfect elastoplastic element with a yielding strength depending on its thickness. The interaction between adjacent nanotwins is not taken into consideration according to the cyclic plasticity mechanism of highly oriented nanotwins. The modeling results are well consistent with the experiments, including the loading-history independence, Masing behavior, and back stress evolution. Moreover, the dissipation energy during cyclic deformation can be evaluated from a thermodynamics perspective, which offers an approach for the prediction of the fatigue life of highly oriented nanotwins. The cyclic plasticity modeling and fatigue life prediction are unified without additional fatigue damage parameters. Overall, our work lays down a physics-informed framework that is critical for the precise prediction of the unique cyclic behaviors of highly oriented nanotwins.