The improvement of fracture strength by insertion of thin, soft interlayers is a strategy observed in biological materials such as deep-see sponges. The basic mechanism is a reduction of the crack driving force due to the spatial variation of yield strength and/or Young's modulus. The application of this “material inhomogeneity effect” is demonstrated in this paper. The effectiveness of various interlayer configurations is investigated by numerical simulations under application of the configurational force concept. Laminated composites, made of high-strength tool steels as matrix materials and low-strength deep-drawing steel as interlayer material, were manufactured by hot press bonding. The number of interlayers and the interlayer thickness were varied. Fracture mechanics experiments show crack arrest in the first interlayer and significant improvements in fracture toughness, even without the occurrence of other toughening mechanisms, such as interface delamination. The application of the material inhomogeneity effect for different types of matrix materials is discussed.