Most soft materials resist volumetric changes much more than shape distortions. This experimental observation led to the introduction of the incompressibility constraint in the constitutive description of soft materials. The incompressibility constraint provides analytical solutions for problems which, otherwise, could be solved numerically only. However, in the present work, we show that the enforcement of the incompressibility constraint in the analysis of the failure of soft materials can lead to somewhat nonphysical results. We use hyperelasticity with energy limiters to describe the material failure, which starts via the violation of the condition of strong ellipticity. This mathematical condition physically means inability of the material to propagate superimposed waves because cracks nucleate perpendicular to the direction of a possible wave propagation. By enforcing the incompressibility constraint, we sort out longitudinal waves, and consequently, we can miss cracks perpendicular to longitudinal waves. In the present work, we show that such scenario, indeed, occurs in the problems of uniaxial tension and pure shear of natural rubber. We also find that the suppression of longitudinal waves via the incompressibility constraint does not affect the consideration of the material failure in equibiaxial tension and the practically relevant problem of the failure of rubber bearings under combined shear and compression.
On Incompressibility Constraint and Crack Direction in Soft Solids
Contributed by the Applied Mechanics Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Applied Mechanics. Manuscript received April 23, 2019; final manuscript received June 14, 2019; published online July 17, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Shaoxing Qu.
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Mythravaruni, P., and Volokh, K. Y. (July 17, 2019). "On Incompressibility Constraint and Crack Direction in Soft Solids." ASME. J. Appl. Mech. October 2019; 86(10): 101004. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4044089
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