Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has a good elasticity but with a pretty low fracture toughness, which limits its use in practical applications. This paper presents a simple and low-cost approach to manufacture a PDMS/fabric composite through incorporating the commercially available stretchy plain weft-knitted nylon fabric into the PDMS matrix. The fracture toughness of the composite is much higher than that of pure PDMS with an increase up to 700%. The toughening mechanism, which can be attributed to the deformation localization induced fiber stretch and damage propagation in the PDMS matrix, is fully investigated. During cyclic loadings, the composite may exhibit a linear elastic response or a significant hysteresis depending on the stretch level. These results provide physical insights into the deformation mechanism of a soft fabric-reinforced composite and may offer practical routes to realize robust crack-insensitive PDMS.

References

References
1.
Kim
,
D. H.
,
Ahn
,
J. H.
,
Choi
,
W. M.
,
Kim
,
H. S.
,
Kim
,
T. H.
,
Song
,
J.
,
Huang
,
Y.
,
Liu
,
Z. J.
,
Chun
,
L.
, and
Rogers
,
J. A.
,
2008
, “
Stretchable and Foldable Silicon Integrated Circuits
,”
Science
,
320
(
5875
), pp.
507
511
.
2.
Huang
,
Y. A.
,
Ding
,
Y.
,
Bian
,
J.
,
Su
,
Y.
,
Zhou
,
J.
,
Duan
,
Y.
, and
Yin
,
Z.
,
2017
, “
Hyper-Stretchable Self-Powered Sensors Based on Electrohydrodynamically Printed, Self-Similar Piezoelectric Nano/Micro Fibers
,”
Nano Energy
,
40
, pp.
432
439
.
3.
Viventi
,
J.
,
Kim
,
D. H.
,
Vigeland
,
L.
,
Frechette
,
E. S.
,
Blanco
,
J. A.
,
Kim
,
Y. S.
,
Avrin
,
A. E.
,
Tiruvadi
,
V. R.
,
Hwang
,
S. W.
,
Vanleer
,
A. C.
,
Wulsin
,
D. F.
,
Davis
,
K.
,
Gelber
,
C. E.
,
Palmer
,
L.
,
Van der Spiegel
,
J.
,
Wu
,
J.
,
Xiao
,
J.
,
Huang
,
Y.
,
Contreras
,
D.
,
Rogers
,
J. A.
, and
Litt
,
B.
,
2011
, “
Flexible, Foldable, Actively Multiplexed, High-Density Electrode Array for Mapping Brain Activity In Vivo
,”
Nat. Neurosci.
,
14
(
12
), pp.
1599
1605
.
4.
Webb
,
R. C.
,
Bonifas
,
A. P.
,
Behnaz
,
A.
,
Zhang
,
Y.
,
Yu
,
K. J.
,
Cheng
,
H.
,
Shi
,
M.
,
Bian
,
Z.
,
Liu
,
Z.
,
Kim
,
Y. S.
,
Yeo
,
W. H.
,
Park
,
J. S.
,
Song
,
J.
,
Li
,
Y.
,
Huang
,
Y.
,
Gorbach
,
A. M.
, and
Rogers
,
J. A.
,
2013
, “
Ultrathin Conformal Devices for Precise and Continuous Thermal Characterization of Human Skin
,”
Nat. Mater.
,
12
(
10
), pp.
938
944
.
5.
Lee
,
H.
,
Choi
,
T. K.
,
Lee
,
Y. B.
,
Cho
,
H. R.
,
Ghaffari
,
R.
,
Wang
,
L.
,
Choi
,
H. J.
,
Chung
,
T. D.
,
Lu
,
N. S.
,
Hyeon
,
T.
,
Choi
,
S. H.
, and
Kim
,
D. H.
,
2016
, “
A Graphene-Based Electrochemical Device With Thermoresponsive Microneedles for Diabetes Monitoring and Therapy
,”
Nat. Nanotechnol.
,
11
(
6
), p.
566
.
6.
Gao
,
W.
,
Emaminejad
,
S.
,
Nyein
,
H. Y. Y.
,
Challa
,
S.
,
Chen
,
K. V.
,
Peck
,
A.
,
Fahad
,
H. M.
,
Ota
,
H.
,
Shiraki
,
H.
,
Kiriya
,
D.
,
Lien
,
D. H.
,
Brooks
,
G. A.
,
Davis
,
R. W.
, and
Javey
,
A.
,
2016
, “
Fully Integrated Wearable Sensor Arrays for Multiplexed in Situ Perspiration Analysis
,”
Nature
,
529
(
7587
), p.
509
.
7.
Li
,
H.
,
Xu
,
Y.
,
Li
,
X.
,
Chen
,
Y.
,
Jiang
,
Y.
,
Zhang
,
C.
,
Lu
,
B.
,
Wang
,
J.
,
Ma
,
Y.
,
Chen
,
Y.
,
Huang
,
Y.
,
Ding
,
M.
,
Su
,
H.
,
Song
,
G.
,
Luo
,
Y.
, and
Feng
,
X.
,
2017
, “
Epidermal Inorganic Optoelectronics for Blood Oxygen Measurement
,”
Adv. Healthcare Mater.
,
6
, p.
1601013
.
8.
Chen
,
Y.
,
Lu
,
S.
,
Zhang
,
S.
,
Li
,
Y.
,
Qu
,
Z.
,
Chen
,
Y.
,
Lu
,
B.
,
Wang
,
X.
, and
Feng
,
X.
,
2017
, “
Skin-like Biosensor System Via Electrochemical Channels for Noninvasive Blood Glucose Monitoring
,”
Sci. Adv.
,
3
(
12
), p.
e1701629
.
9.
Suo
,
Z.
,
2012
, “
Mechanics of Stretchable Electronics and Soft Machines
,”
MRS Bull.
,
37
(
03
), pp.
218
225
.
10.
Song
,
J.
,
2015
, “
Mechanics of Stretchable Electronics
,”
Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci.
,
19
(
3
), pp.
160
170
.
11.
Li
,
Z.
,
Wang
,
Y.
, and
Xiao
,
J.
,
2015
, “
Mechanics of Curvilinear Electronics and Optoelectronics
,”
Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci.
,
19
(
3
), pp.
171
189
.
12.
Ma
,
Q.
, and
Zhang
,
Y. H.
,
2016
, “
Mechanics of Fractal-Inspired Horseshoe Microstructures for Applications in Stretchable Electronics
,”
ASME J. Appl. Mech.
,
83
(
11
), p.
111008
.
13.
Zhang
,
Y. H.
,
Huang
,
Y.
, and
Rogers
,
J. A.
,
2015
, “
Mechanics of Stretchable Batteries and Supercapacitors
,”
Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci.
,
19
(
3
), pp.
190
199
.
14.
Song
,
J.
,
Feng
,
X.
, and
Huang
,
Y.
,
2016
, “
Mechanics and Thermal Management of Stretchable Inorganic Electronics
,”
Natl. Sci. Rev.
,
3
(
1
), pp.
128
143
.
15.
Yuan
,
J.
,
Pharr
,
M.
,
Feng
,
X.
,
Rogers
,
J. A.
, and
Huang
,
Y.
,
2016
, “
Design of Stretchable Electronics against Impact
,”
ASME J. Appl. Mech.
,
10
(
10
), p.
101009
.
16.
Huang
,
C.
,
Bian
,
Z.
,
Fang
,
C.
,
Zhou
,
X.
, and
Song
,
J.
,
2018
, “
Experimental and Theoretical Study on Mechanical Properties of Porous PDMS
,”
ASME J. Appl. Mech.
,
85
(
4
), p.
041009
.
17.
Zhang
,
M.
,
Liu
,
H.
,
Cao
,
P.
,
Chen
,
B.
,
Hu
,
J.
,
Chen
,
Y.
,
Pan
,
B.
,
Fan
,
J. A.
,
Li
,
R.
,
Zhang
,
L.
, and
Su
,
Y.
,
2017
, “
Strain-Limiting Substrates Based on Nonbuckling, Prestrain-Free Mechanics for Robust Stretchable Electronics
,”
ASME J. Appl. Mech.
,
84
(12), p.
121010
.
18.
Kim
,
D. H.
,
Song
,
J.
,
Choi
,
W. M.
,
Kim
,
H. S.
,
Kim
,
R. H.
,
Liu
,
Z.
,
Huang
,
Y.
,
Hwang
,
K. C.
,
Zhang
,
Y.
, and
Rogers
,
J. A.
,
2008
, “
Materials and Noncoplanar Mesh Designs for Integrated Circuits With Linear Elastic Responses to Extreme Mechanical Deformations
,”
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A.
,
105
, pp.
18675
680
.
19.
Ko
,
H. C.
,
Stoykovich
,
M. P.
,
Song
,
J.
,
Malyarchuk
,
V.
,
Choi
,
W. M.
,
Yu
,
C. J.
,
Geddes
,
J. B.
,
Xiao
,
J.
,
Wang
,
S.
,
Huang
,
Y.
, and
Rogers
,
J. A.
,
2008
, “
A Hemispherical Electronic Eye Camera Based on Compressible Silicon Optoelectronics
,”
Nature
,
454
(
7205
), pp.
748
753
.
20.
King
,
D. R.
,
Sun
,
T. L.
,
Huang
,
Y.
,
Kurokawa
,
T.
,
Nanoyama
,
T.
,
Crosby
,
A. J.
, and
Gong
,
J. P.
,
2015
, “
Extremely Tough Composites From Fabric Reinforced Polyampholyte Hydrogels
,”
Mater. Horizon
,
2
(
6
), pp.
584
591
.
21.
Lin
,
S.
,
Cao
,
C.
,
Wang
,
Q.
,
Gonzalez
,
M.
,
Dolbow
,
J. E.
, and
Zhao
,
X.
,
2014
, “
Design of Stiff, Tough and Stretchy Hydrogel Composite Via Nanoscale Hybrid Crosslinking and Macroscale Fiber Reinforcement
,”
Soft Matter
,
10
(
38
), pp.
7519
7527
.
22.
Gao
,
Y.
,
Sim
,
K.
,
Sun
,
S.
,
Chen
,
Z.
,
Song
,
J.
, and
Yu
,
C.
,
2015
, “
Crack-Insensitive Wearable Electronics Enabled Through High-Strength Kevlar Fabrics
,”
IEEE Trans. Compon., Packaging Manuf. Technol.
,
5
(
9
), pp.
1230
1236
.
23.
Feng
,
X.
,
Ma
,
Z.
,
MacArthur
,
J. V.
,
Giuffre
,
C. J.
,
Bastawros
,
A. F.
, and
Hong
,
W.
,
2016
, “
A Highly Stretchable Double-Network Composite
,”
Soft Matter
,
12
(
44
), pp.
8999
9006
.
24.
Ma
,
Q.
,
Cheng
,
H.
,
Jang
,
K. I.
,
Luan
,
H.
,
Hwang
,
K. C.
,
Rogers
,
J. A.
,
Huang
,
Y.
, and
Zhang
,
Y. H.
,
2016
, “
A Nonlinear Mechanics Model of Bio-Inspired Hierarchical Lattice Materials Consisting of Horseshoe Microstructures
,”
J. Mech. Phys. Solids
,
90
, pp.
179
202
.
25.
Visser
,
J.
,
Melchels
,
F. P. W.
,
Jeon
,
J. E.
,
van Bussel
,
E. M.
,
Kimpton
,
L. S.
,
Byrne
,
H. M.
,
Dhert
,
W. J. A.
,
Dalton
,
P. D.
,
Hutmacher
,
D. W.
, and
Malda
,
J.
,
2015
, “
Reinforcement of Hydrogels Using Three-Dimensionally Printed Microfibers
,”
Nat. Commun.
,
6
, p.
6933
.
26.
Rivlin
,
R. S.
, and
Thomas
,
A. G.
,
1997
, “
Rupture of Rubber—I: Characteristic Energy for Tearing
,”
Collected Papers of RS Rivlin
,
Springer
,
New York
, pp.
2615
2642
.
You do not currently have access to this content.