The principals of interfacial fracture mechanics and modified Gibbs adsorption equation are utilized to provide a predictive correlation for the macroscopic (effective) fracture toughness of polymer-based adhesive interfaces, exposed to varying level of contaminant concentration. The macroscopic fracture toughness measurement by double cantilever beam test exhibits a progressive deterioration with the increase of the contaminant surface concentration. The associated variation of fracture surface morphology exhibits ductile-to-brittle failure transition, caused by the contamination-induced suppression of plastic deformation within the adhesive layer. The corresponding intrinsic interfacial surface energy is extracted by finite-element simulation, employing surface-based cohesive elements. The modified Gibbs adsorption equation is utilized to correlate the contamination-induced degradation of the interfacial surface energy as a function of contaminant surface concentration. Interfacial fracture mechanics principals are applied to extend the correlation to the macroscopic fracture toughness of the interface. With additional examination of other systems, the proposed correlation may provide the basis for nondestructive evaluation of bond line integrity, exposed to different levels of contaminant.

References

References
1.
da Silva
,
L. F. M.
,
Andreas
,
Ö.
, and
Adams
,
R. D.
,
2011
,
Handbook of Adhesion Technology
,
Springer Verlag
,
Berlin, Heidelberg
.
2.
Adams
,
R. D.
,
John
,
C.
, and
William
,
C. W.
,
1997
,
Structural Adhesive Joints in Engineering
,
Springer Science & Business Media
,
Springer, The Netherlands
.
3.
Banea
,
M. D.
,
da Silva
,
L. F. M.
, and
Campilho
,
R. D. S. G.
,
2012
, “
Effect of Temperature on Tensile Strength and Mode I Fracture Toughness of a High Temperature Epoxy Adhesive
,”
J. Adhes. Sci. Technol.
,
26
(
7
), pp.
939
953
.
4.
Al-Mandil
,
M. Y.
,
Khalil
,
H. S.
,
Baluch
,
M. H.
, and
Azad
,
A. K.
,
1990
, “
Performance of Epoxy-Repaired Concrete Under Thermal Cycling
,”
Cem. Concr. Compos.
,
12
(
1
), pp.
47
52
.
5.
Lee
,
B. L.
, and
Holl
,
M. W.
,
1996
, “
Effects of Moisture and Thermal Cycling on In-Plane Shear Properties of Graphite Fibre-Reinforced Cyanate Ester Resin Composites
,”
Composites, Part A
,
27
(
11
), pp.
1015
1022
.
6.
Crocombe
,
A. D.
,
Hua
,
Y. X.
,
Loh
,
W. K.
,
Wahab
,
M. A.
, and
Ashcroft
,
I. A.
,
2006
, “
Predicting the Residual Strength for Environmentally Degraded Adhesive Lap Joints
,”
Int. J. Adhes. Adhes.
,
26
(
5
), pp.
325
336
.
7.
Katnam
,
K. B.
,
Sargent
,
J. P.
,
Crocombe
,
A. D.
,
Khoramishad
,
H.
, and
Ashcroft
,
I. A.
,
2010
, “
Characterisation of Moisture-Dependent Cohesive Zone Properties for Adhesively Bonded Joints
,”
Eng. Fract. Mech.
,
77
(
16
), pp.
3105
3119
.
8.
Hua
,
Y.
,
Crocombe
,
A. D.
,
Wahab
,
M. A.
, and
Ashcroft
,
I. A.
,
2008
, “
Continuum Damage Modelling of Environmental Degradation in Joints Bonded With EA9321 Epoxy Adhesive
,”
Int. J. Adhes. Adhes.
,
28
(
6
), pp.
302
313
.
9.
Doyle
,
G.
, and
Pethrick
,
R. A.
,
2009
, “
Environmental Effects on the Ageing of Epoxy Adhesive Joints
,”
Int. J. Adhes. Adhes.
,
29
(
1
), pp.
77
90
.
10.
Sugiman
,
S.
,
Crocombe
,
A. D.
, and
Aschroft
,
I. A.
,
2013
, “
Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Static Response of Environmentally Aged Adhesively Bonded Joints
,”
Int. J. Adhes. Adhes.
,
40
, pp.
224
237
.
11.
Rider
,
A. N.
,
Olsson‐Jacques
,
C. L.
, and
Arnott
,
D. R.
,
1999
, “
Influence of Adherend Surface Preparation on Bond Durability
,”
Surf. Interface Anal.
,
27
(
12
), pp.
1055
1063
.
12.
Markatos
,
D. N.
,
Tserpes
,
K. I.
,
Rau
,
E.
,
Markus
,
S.
,
Ehrhart
,
B.
, and
Pantelakis
,
S.
,
2013
, “
The Effects of Manufacturing-Induced and In-Service Related Bonding Quality Reduction on the Mode-I Fracture Toughness of Composite Bonded Joints for Aeronautical Use
,”
Composites, Part B
,
45
(
1
), pp.
556
564
.
13.
Zhang
,
F.
,
Wang
,
H. P.
,
Hicks
,
C.
,
Yang
,
X.
,
Carlson
,
B. E.
, and
Zhou
,
Q.
,
2013
, “
Experimental Study of Initial Strengths and Hygrothermal Degradation of Adhesive Joints Between Thin Aluminum and Steel Substrates
,”
Int. J. Adhes. Adhes.
,
43
, pp.
14
25
.
14.
Wetzel
,
M.
,
Holtmannspötter
,
J.
,
Gudladt
,
H. J.
, and
Czarnecki
,
J. V.
,
2013
, “
Sensitivity of Double Cantilever Beam Test to Surface Contamination and Surface Pretreatment
,”
Int. J. Adhes. Adhes.
,
46
, pp.
114
121
.
15.
Paulauskas
,
F. L.
,
Meek
,
T. T.
, and
Warren
,
C. D.
,
1996
, “
Adhesive Bonding Via Exposure to Microwave Radiation and Resulting Mechanical Evaluation
,”
MRS
Proceedings
, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, Vol.
430
, p.
193
.
16.
Davis
,
G. D.
,
1993
, “
Contamination of Surfaces: Origin, Detection and Effect on Adhesion
,”
Surf. Interface Anal.
,
20
(
5
), pp.
368
372
.
17.
Hong
,
S. G.
, and
Boerio
,
F. J.
,
1990
, “
Adhesive Bonding of Oil-Contaminated Steel Substrates
,”
J. Adhes.
,
32
(
2–3
), pp.
67
88
.
18.
Tvergaard
,
V.
, and
Hutchinson
,
J. W.
,
1994
, “
Toughness of an Interface Along a Thin Ductile Layer Joining Elastic Solids
,”
Philos. Mag. A
,
70
(
4
), pp.
641
656
.
19.
U.S. Army Missile Command,
1994
, “
Product Cleanliness Levels and Contamination Control Program
,” AMSMI-RD-SE-TD-ST, Redstone Arsenal, AL, Standard No. MIL-STD-1246C.
20.
ASTM
,
2013
, “
Standard Test Method for Mode-I Interlaminar Fracture Toughness of Unidirectional Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites
,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, Standard No. ASTM-D5528-13.
21.
Yavas
,
D.
,
Shang
,
X.
,
Hong
,
W.
, and
Bastawros
,
A. F.
,
2017
, “
Utilization of Nanoindentation to Examine Bond Line Integrity in Adhesively Bonded Composite Structures
,”
Int. J. Fract.
,
204
(
1
), pp.
101
112
.
22.
ASTM
,
2012
, “
Standard Practice for Classifying Failure Modes in Fiber-Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Joints
,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, Standard No. ASTM-D5573-99.
23.
Chai
,
H.
,
1986
, “
On the Correlation Between the Mode I Failure of Adhesive Joints and Laminated Composites
,”
Eng. Fract. Mech.
,
24
(
3
), pp.
413
431
.
24.
Chai
,
H.
,
1993
, “
Observation of Deformation and Damage at the Tip of Cracks in Adhesive Bonds Loaded in Shear and Assessment of a Criterion for Fracture
,”
Int. J. Fract.
,
60
(
4
), pp.
311
326
.
25.
Callen
,
H. B.
,
1985
,
Thermodynamics and an Introduction to Thermostatics
,
Wiley
,
Hoboken, NJ
.
26.
Langmuir
,
I.
,
1917
, “
The Constitution and Fundamental Properties of Solids and Liquids—II: Liquids
,”
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
,
39
(
9
), pp.
1848
1906
.
27.
Guess
,
T. R.
,
Reedy
,
E. D.
, and
Stavig
,
M. E.
,
1995
, “
Mechanical Properties of Hysol EA-9394 Structural Adhesive
,” Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM,
Report No. SAND95-0229
.
28.
Bossi
,
R.
,
Carlsen
,
R.
,
Boerio
,
F. J.
, and
Dillingham
,
G.
,
2005
, “
Composite Surface Preparation QA for Bonding
,”
50th International SAMPE Symposium
, Long Beach, CA.
You do not currently have access to this content.