The air flow that crosses the cylinderhead of a low-capacity engine is studied both theoretically and experimentally in the steady regime. We analyze the dependence of both the discharge coefficient and swirl number on the Reynolds number and valve lift. The formation of the turbulent vortex in the cylinder is described by measuring the 2D velocity distribution over several cylinder cross sections. The integration of the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations reproduces satisfactorily the experimental data, especially the swirl number values.

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