Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are of significant interest in the electronic materials research community due to their excellent electrical properties and many promising applications. However, SWNTs grow as mixture of both metallic and semiconducting tubes and this heterogeneity frustrates their practical use in high performance electronics. Recently developed purification techniques based on nanoscale thermocapillary flow of thin film overcoats enables complete elimination of metallic SWNTs from as-grown arrays. We studied the thermocapillary flow to purify SWNTs analytically and established a simple scaling law for the film thickness profile in terms of the geometry (e.g., film thickness), material (e.g., thermal conductivity and viscosity), and loading (e.g., power density) parameters. The results show that the normalized thickness profile only depends on one nondimensional parameter: the normalized power density. These findings may serve as useful design guidelines for process optimization.

References

References
1.
Avouris
,
P.
,
Chen
,
Z.
, and
Perebeinos
,
V.
,
2007
, “
Carbon-Based Electronics
,”
Nat. Nanotechnol.
,
2
(10), pp.
605
615
.10.1038/nnano.2007.300
2.
Kang
,
S. J.
,
Kocabas
,
C.
,
Ozel
,
T.
,
Shim
,
M.
,
Pimparkar
,
N.
,
Alam
,
M. A.
,
Rotkin
,
S. V.
, and
Rogers
,
J. A.
,
2007
, “
High-Performance Electronics Using Dense, Perfectly Aligned Arrays of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
,”
Nat. Nanotechnol.
,
2
(4), pp.
230
236
.10.1038/nnano.2007.77
3.
Wang
,
C.
,
Takei
,
K.
,
Takahashi
,
T.
, and
Javey
,
A.
,
2013
, “
Carbon Nanotube Electronics-Moving Forward
,”
Chem. Soc. Rev.
,
42
(
7
), pp.
2592
2609
.10.1039/C2CS35325C
4.
Cao
,
Q.
, and
Han
,
S. J.
,
2013
, “
Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for High-Performance Electronics
,”
Nanoscale
,
5
(
19
), pp.
8852
8863
.10.1039/c3nr02966b
5.
Tulevski
,
G. S.
,
Franklin
,
A. D.
,
Frank
,
D.
,
Lobez
,
J. M.
,
Cao
,
Q.
,
Park
,
H.
,
Afzali
,
A.
,
Han
,
S. J.
,
Hannon
,
J. B.
, and
Haensch
,
W.
,
2014
, “
Toward High-Performance Digital Logic Technology With Carbon Nanotubes
,”
ACS Nano
,
8
(
9
), pp.
8730
8745
.10.1021/nn503627h
6.
Arnold
,
M. S.
,
Green
,
A. A.
,
Hulvat
,
J. F.
,
Stupp
,
S. I.
, and
Hersam
,
M. C.
,
2006
, “
Sorting Carbon Nanotubes by Electronic Structure Using Density Differentiation
,”
Nat. Nanotechnol.
,
1
(1), pp.
60
65
.10.1038/nnano.2006.52
7.
Green
,
A. A.
, and
Hersam
,
M. C.
,
2011
, “
Nearly Single-Chirality Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Produced Via Orthogonal Iterative Density Gradient Ultracentrifugation
,”
Adv. Mater.
,
23
(19), pp.
2185
2190
.10.1002/adma.201100034
8.
Zheng
,
M.
, and
Semke
,
E. D.
,
2007
, “
Enrichment of Single Chirality Carbon Nanotubes
,”
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
,
129
(
19
), pp.
6084
6085
.10.1021/ja071577k
9.
Liu
,
H.
,
Nishide
,
D.
,
Tanaka
,
T.
, and
Kataura
,
H.
,
2011
, “
Large-Scale Single-Chirality Separation of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes by Simple Gel Chromatography
,”
Nat. Commun.
,
2
, p.
309
.10.1038/ncomms1313
10.
Wu
,
J.
,
Xie
,
L.
,
Hong
,
G.
,
Lim
,
H. E.
,
Thendie
,
B.
,
Miyata
,
Y.
,
Shinohara
,
H.
, and
Dai
,
H.
,
2012
, “
Short Channel Field-Effect Transistors From Highly Enriched Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes
,”
Nano Res.
,
5
(
1
), pp.
388
394
.10.1007/s12274-012-0219-0
11.
Kocabas
,
C.
,
Hur
,
S. H.
,
Gaur
,
A.
,
Meitl
,
M. A.
,
Shim
,
M.
, and
Rogers
,
J. A.
,
2005
, “
Guided Growth of Large-Scale, Horizontally Aligned Arrays of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Their Use in Thin-Film Transistors
,”
Small
,
1
(
1
), pp.
1110
1116
.10.1002/smll.200500120
12.
Xiao
,
J.
,
Dunham
,
S.
,
Liu
,
P.
,
Zhang
,
Y.
,
Kocabas
,
C.
,
Moh
,
L.
,
Huang
,
Y.
,
Hwang
,
K. C.
,
Liu
,
C.
,
Huang
,
W.
, and
Rogers
,
J. A.
,
2009
, “
Alignment Controlled Growth of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Quartz Substrates
,”
Nano Lett.
,
9
(
12
), pp.
4311
4319
.10.1021/nl9025488
13.
Liao
,
A.
,
Alizadegan
,
R.
,
Ong
,
Z. Y.
,
Dutta
,
S.
,
Xiong
,
F.
,
Hsia
,
K. J.
, and
Pop
,
E.
,
2010
, “
Thermal Dissipation and Variability in Electrical Breakdown of Carbon Nanotube Devices
,”
Phys. Rev. B
,
82
(20), p.
205406
.10.1103/PhysRevB.82.205406
14.
Mahjouri-Samani
,
M.
,
Zhou
,
Y. S.
,
Xiong
,
W.
,
Gao
,
Y.
,
Mitchell
,
M.
, and
Lu
,
Y. F.
,
2009
, “
Laser Induced Selective Removal of Metallic Carbon Nanotubes
,”
Nanotechnology
,
20
(49), p.
495202
.10.1088/0957-4484/20/49/495202
15.
Shim
,
H. C.
,
Song
,
J. W.
,
Kwak
,
Y. K.
,
Kim
,
S.
, and
Han
,
C. S.
,
2009
, “
Preferential Elimination of Metallic Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Using Mirowave Irradiation
,”
Nanotechnology
,
20
(
6
), p.
065707
.10.1088/0957-4484/20/6/065707
16.
Zhang
,
G. Y.
,
Qi
,
P. F.
,
Wang
,
X. R.
,
Lu
,
Y. R.
,
Li
,
X. L.
,
Tu
,
R.
,
Bangsaruntip
,
S.
,
Mann
,
D.
,
Zhang
,
L.
, and
Dai
,
H. J.
,
2006
, “
Selective Etching of Metallic Carbon Nanotubes by Gas-Phase Reaction
,”
Science
,
314
(
5801
), pp.
974
977
.10.1126/science.1133781
17.
Franklin
,
A. D.
,
2013
, “
The Road to Carbon Nanotube Transistors
,”
Nature
,
498
(7455), pp.
443
444
.10.1038/498443a
18.
Jin
,
S. H.
,
Dunham
,
S. N.
,
Song
,
J.
,
Xie
,
X.
,
Kim
,
J. H.
,
Lu
,
C.
,
Islam
,
A.
,
Du
,
F.
,
Kim
,
J.
,
Felts
,
J.
,
Li
,
Y.
,
Xiong
,
F.
,
Wahab
,
M. A.
,
Menon
,
M.
,
Cho
,
E.
,
Grosse
,
K. L.
,
Lee
,
D. J.
,
Chung
,
H. U.
,
Pop
,
E.
,
Alam
,
M. A.
,
King
,
W. P.
,
Huang
,
Y.
, and
Rogers
,
J. A.
,
2013
, “
Using Nanoscale Thermocapillary Flows to Create Arrays of Purely Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
,”
Nat. Nanotechnol.
,
8
(5), pp.
347
355
.10.1038/nnano.2013.56
19.
Xie
,
X.
,
Jin
,
S. H.
,
Wahab
,
M. A.
,
Islam
,
A. E.
,
Zhang
,
C.
,
Du
,
F.
,
Seabron
,
E.
,
Lu
,
T.
,
Dunham
,
S. N.
,
Cheong
,
H. I.
,
Tu
,
Y. C.
,
Guo
,
Z.
,
Chung
,
H. U.
,
Li
,
Y.
,
Liu
,
Y.
,
Lee
,
J. H.
,
Song
,
J.
,
Huang
,
Y.
,
Alam
,
M. A.
,
Wilson
,
W. L.
, and
Rogers
,
J. A.
,
2014
, “
Microwave Purification of Large-Area Horizontally Aligned Arrays of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
,”
Nat. Commun.
,
5
, p.
5332
.10.1038/ncomms6332
20.
Du
,
F.
,
Felts
,
J. R.
,
Xie
,
X.
,
Song
,
J.
,
Li
,
Y.
,
Rosenberger
,
M. R.
,
Islam
,
A. E.
,
Jin
,
S. H.
,
Dunham
,
S. N.
,
Zhang
,
C.
,
Wilson
,
W. L.
,
Huang
,
Y.
,
King
,
W. P.
, and
Rogers
,
J. A.
,
2014
, “
Laser-Induced Nanoscale Thermocapillary Flow for Purification of Aligned Arrays of Single-Waleed Carbon Nanotubes
,”
ACS Nano
,
8
(
12
), pp.
12641
12649
.10.1021/nn505566r
21.
Song
,
J.
,
Lu
,
C.
,
Zhang
,
C.
,
Jin
,
S. H.
,
Li
,
Y.
,
Dunham
,
S. N.
,
Xie
,
X.
,
Du
,
F.
,
Huang
,
Y.
, and
Rogers
,
J. A.
,
2014
, “
Modeling of Thermocapillary Flow to Purify Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
,”
RSC Adv.
,
4
(80), pp.
42454
42461
.10.1039/C4RA08895F
22.
Jin
,
S. H.
,
Song
,
J.
,
Chung
,
H. U.
,
Zhang
,
C.
,
Dunham
,
S. N.
,
Xie
,
X.
,
Du
,
F.
,
Kim
,
T.
,
Lee
,
J. H.
,
Huang
,
Y.
, and
Rogers
,
J. A.
,
2014
, “
Fundamental Effects in Nanoscale Thermocapillary Flow
,”
J. Appl. Phys.
,
115
(5), p.
054315
.10.1063/1.4864487
23.
Darhuber
,
A. A.
,
Davis
,
J. M.
, and
Troian
,
S. M.
,
2003
, “
Thermocapillary Actuation of Liquid Flow on Chemically Patterned Surfaces
,”
Phys. Fluids
,
15
(5), pp.
1295
1304
.10.1063/1.1562628
24.
Wulf
,
M.
,
Michel
,
S.
,
Jenschke
,
W.
,
Uhlmann
,
P.
, and
Grundke
,
K.
,
1999
, “
A New Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Surface Tension and Density of Polymer Melts
,”
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.
,
1
(17), pp.
3899
3903
.10.1039/a903282g
You do not currently have access to this content.