In this study, epoxy resin was microencapsulated through in situ polymerization in an oil-in-water emulsion, and amine was loaded into etched glass bubbles (GBs) as a curing agent for the microencapsulated epoxy resin. The purpose was to develop a two-component-self-healing system. The two healing agent carriers were co-incorporated in the epoxy matrix to form novel epoxy composites for tribological applications. The tribological results clearly showed that an increase in healing agent carrier content significantly decreased the friction and wear of the epoxy composites tested against a 6 mm steel ball under different normal loads. This was due to the self-lubricating and self-healing of the composites with released core liquids via the rupture of healing agent carriers during the wear test. It could be concluded that the co-incorporation of two healing agent carriers was a potential way to achieve a significant improvement in the tribological properties of epoxy matrix composites.

References

References
1.
Ajayan
,
P. M.
,
Schadler
,
L. S.
,
Giannaris
,
C.
, and
Rubio
,
A.
,
2000
, “
Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composites: Strength and Weakness
,”
Adv. Mater.
,
12
(
10
), pp.
750
753
.10.1002/(SICI)1521-4095(200005)12:10<750::AID-ADMA750>3.0.CO;2-6
2.
Thostenson
,
E. T.
,
Ren
,
Z.
, and
Chou
,
T. W.
,
2001
, “
Advances in Science and Technology of Carbon Nanotubes and Their Composites: A Review
,”
Compos. Sci. Technol.
,
61
(
13
), pp.
1899
1912
.10.1016/S0266-3538(01)00094-X
3.
Anderson
,
J. C.
,
1982
, “
Wear of Commercially Available Plastic Materials
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
15
(
5
), pp.
255
263
.10.1016/0301-679X(82)90079-2
4.
Bahadur
,
S.
, and
Gong
,
D.
,
1992
, “
The Action of Fillers in the Modification of the Tribological Behavior of Polymers
,”
Wear
,
158
(
1–2
), pp.
41
59
.10.1016/0043-1648(92)90029-8
5.
Zhang
,
Z. Z.
,
Liu
,
W. M.
, and
Xue
,
Q. J.
,
2001
, “
Effects of Various Kinds of Fillers on the Tribological Behavior of Polytetrafluoroethylene Composites Under Dry and Oil-Lubricated Conditions
,”
J. Appl. Poly. Sci.
,
80
(
11
), pp.
1891
1897
.10.1002/app.1286
6.
Wan
,
Y. Z.
,
Luo
,
H. L.
,
Wang
,
V. L.
,
Huang
,
V.
,
Li
,
Q. V.
,
Zhou
,
F. G.
, and
Chen
,
G. C.
,
2005
, “
Friction and Wear Behavior of Three-Dimensional Braided Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Composites Under Lubricated Sliding Conditions
,”
J. Mater. Sci.
,
40
(
17
), pp.
4475
4481
.10.1007/s10853-005-1171-0
7.
Khun
,
N. W.
,
Zhang
,
H.
,
Yue
,
C. Y.
, and
Yang
,
J. L.
,
2014
, “
Self Lubricating and Wear Resistant Epoxy Composites Incorporated With Microcapsulated Wax
,”
ASME J. Appl. Mech.
,
81
(
7
), p.
071004
.10.1115/1.4026941
8.
Khun
,
N. W.
,
Zhang
,
H.
,
Tang
,
X. Z.
,
Yue
,
C. Y.
, and
Yang
,
J. L.
,
2014
, “
Short Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Tribomaterials Self-Lubricated by Wax Containing Microcapsules
,”
ASME J. Appl. Mech.
,
81
(
12
), p.
121004
.10.1115/1.4028752
9.
Khun
,
N. W.
,
Zhang
,
H.
,
Liu
,
E.
, and
Yang
,
J. L.
,
2013
, “
Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Epoxy Matrix Composites Modified With Microencapsulated Mixture of Wax Lubricant and Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes
,”
Friction
,
1
(
4
), pp.
341
349
.10.1007/s40544-013-0028-9
10.
White
,
S. R.
,
Sottos
,
N. R.
,
Geubelle
,
P. H.
,
Moore
,
J. S.
,
Kessler
,
M. R.
,
Sriram
,
S. R.
,
Brown
,
E. N.
, and
Viswanathan
,
S.
,
2001
, “
Autonomic Healing of Polymer Composites
,”
Nature
,
409
(
6822
), pp.
794
797
.10.1038/35057232
11.
Wu
,
D. Y.
,
Meure
,
S.
, and
Solomon
,
D.
,
2008
, “
Self-Healing Polymeric Materials: A Review of Recent Developments
,”
Prog. Polym. Sci.
,
33
(
5
), pp.
479
522
.10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2008.02.001
12.
Wool
,
R. P.
,
2008
, “
Self-Healing Materials: A Review
,”
Soft Matter
,
4
(
3
), pp.
400
418
.10.1039/b711716g
13.
Blaiszik
,
B. J.
,
2010
, “
Self-Healing Polymers and Composites
,”
Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.
,
40
(
1
), pp.
179
211
.10.1146/annurev-matsci-070909-104532
14.
Keller
,
M. W.
,
Hampton
,
K.
, and
McLaury
,
B.
,
2013
, “
Self-Healing of Erosion Damage in a Polymer Coating
,”
Wear
,
307
(
1–2
), pp.
218
225
.10.1016/j.wear.2013.09.005
15.
Khun
,
N. W.
,
Sun
,
D. W.
,
Huang
,
M. X.
,
Yang
,
J. L.
, and
Yue
,
C. Y.
,
2014
, “
Wear Resistant Epoxy Composites With Diisocyanate-Based Self-Healing Functionality
,”
Wear
,
313
(
1–2
), pp.
19
28
.10.1016/j.wear.2014.02.011
16.
Zhang
,
H.
, and
Yang
,
J. L.
,
2013
, “
Etched Glass Bubbles as Robust Micro-Containers for Self-Healing Materials
,”
J. Mater. Chem. A
,
1
(41), pp.
12715
12720
.10.1039/C3TA13227G
17.
Zhang
,
H.
, and
Yang
,
J. L.
,
2014
, “
Development of Self-Healing Polymers Via Amine–Epoxy Chemistry: I. Properties of Healing Agent Carriers and Modelling of Two-Part Self-Healing System
,”
Smart Mater. Struct.
,
23
(
6
), p.
065003
.10.1088/0964-1726/23/6/065003
18.
Zhang
,
H.
, and
Yang
,
J. L.
,
2014
, “
Development of Self-Healing Polymers Via Amine–Epoxy Chemistry: II. Systematic Evaluation of Self-Healing Performance
,”
Smart Mater. Struct.
,
23
(
6
), p.
065004
.10.1088/0964-1726/23/6/065004
19.
Zhang
,
H.
,
Wang
,
P. F.
, and
Yang
,
J. L.
,
2014
, “
Self-Healing Epoxy Via Epoxy-Amine Chemistry in Dual Hollow Glass Bubbles
,”
Compos. Sci. Technol.
,
94
, pp.
23
29
.10.1016/j.compscitech.2014.01.009
20.
Oliver
,
W. C.
, and
Pharr
,
G. M.
,
1992
, “
An Improved Technique for Determining Hardness and Elastic Modulus Using Load and Displacement Sensing Indentation Experiments
,”
J. Mater. Res.
,
7
(
6
), pp.
1564
1583
.10.1557/JMR.1992.1564
21.
Yang
,
J. L.
,
Keller
,
M. W.
,
Moore
,
J. S.
,
White
,
S. R.
, and
Sottos
,
N. R.
,
2008
, “
Microencapsulation of Isocyanates for Self-Healing Polymers
,”
Macromolecules
,
41
(
24
), pp.
9650
9655
.10.1021/ma801718v
22.
Clerico
,
M.
, and
Patierno
,
V.
,
1979
, “
Sliding Wear of Polymeric Composites
,”
Wear
,
53
(
2
), pp.
279
301
.10.1016/0043-1648(79)90083-8
23.
Blau
,
P. J.
,
1996
,
Friction Science and Technology
,
Marcel Dekker
,
New York
.
24.
Bhushan
,
B.
,
1996
,
Tribology and Mechanics of Magnetic Storage Device
,
2nd ed.
,
Springer-Verlag
,
New York
.
25.
Guo
,
Q. B.
,
Lau
,
K. T.
,
Zheng
,
B. F.
,
Rong
,
M. Z.
, and
Zhang
,
M. Q.
,
2009
, “
Imparting Ultra-Low Friction and Wear Rate to Epoxy by the Incorporation of Microencapsulated Lubricant?
,”
Macromol. Mater. Eng.
,
294
(
1
), pp.
20
24
.10.1002/mame.200800257
26.
Chen
,
W. X.
,
Li
,
B.
,
Han
,
G.
,
Wang
,
L. Y.
,
Tu
,
J. P.
, and
Xu
,
Z. D.
,
2003
, “
Tribological Behavior of Carbon-Nanotube Filled PTFE Composites
,”
Tribol. Lett.
,
15
(
3
), pp.
275
278
.10.1023/A:1024869305259
27.
Zhang
,
L. C.
,
Zarudi
,
I.
, and
Xiao
,
K. Q.
,
2006
, “
Novel Behavior of Friction and Wear of Epoxy Composites Reinforced by Carbon Nanotubes
,”
Wear
,
261
(
7–8
), pp.
806
811
.10.1016/j.wear.2006.01.033
28.
Li
,
C.
, and
Chou
,
T. W.
,
2003
, “
Elastic Moduli of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and the Effect of Van der Waals Forces
,”
Compos. Sci. Technol.
,
63
(
11
), pp.
1517
1524
.10.1016/S0266-3538(03)00072-1
29.
Svahn
,
F.
,
Rudolphi
,
A. K.
, and
Wallen
,
E.
,
2003
, “
The Influence of Surface Roughness on Friction and Wear of Machine Element Coatings
,”
Wear
,
254
(
11
), pp.
1092
1098
.10.1016/S0043-1648(03)00341-7
30.
Menezes
,
P. L.
,
Kishore
, and
Kailas
,
S. V.
,
2009
, “
Influence of Surface Texture and Roughness Parameters on Friction and Transfer Layer Formation During Sliding of Aluminium Pin on Steel Plate
,”
Wear
,
267
(
9–10
), pp.
1534
1549
.10.1016/j.wear.2009.06.003
31.
Barrett
,
T. S.
,
Stachowiak
,
G. W.
, and
Batchelor
,
A. W.
,
1992
, “
Effect of Roughness and Sliding Speed on the Wear and Friction of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene
,”
Wear
,
153
(
2
), pp.
331
350
.10.1016/0043-1648(92)90174-7
32.
Thorp
,
J. M.
,
1982
, “
Abrasive Wear of Some Commercial Polymers
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
15
(
2
), pp.
59
68
.10.1016/0301-679X(82)90054-8
33.
Myshkin
,
N. K.
,
Petrokovets
,
M. I.
, and
Kovalev
,
A. V.
,
2005
, “
Tribology of Polymers: Adhesion, Friction, Wear, and Mass-Transfer
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
38
(
11
), pp.
910
921
.10.1016/j.triboint.2005.07.016
34.
Bahadur
,
S.
,
2000
, “
The Development of Transfer Layers and Their Role in Polymer Tribology
,”
Wear
,
245
(
1–2
), pp.
92
99
.10.1016/S0043-1648(00)00469-5
35.
Durand
,
J. M.
,
Vardavoulias
,
M.
, and
Jeandin
,
M.
,
1995
, “
Role of Reinforcing Ceramic Particles in the Wear Behaviour of Polymer-Based Model Composites
,”
Wear
,
181–183
(
2
), pp.
833
839
.10.1016/0043-1648(95)90203-1
36.
Wang
,
Y.
,
Lim
,
S.
,
Luo
,
J. L.
, and
Xu
,
Z. H.
,
2006
, “
Tribological and Corrosion Behaviors of Al2O3/Polymer Nanocomposite Coatings
,”
Wear
,
260
(
9–10
), pp.
976
983
.10.1016/j.wear.2005.06.013
You do not currently have access to this content.