Well, a “great constellation” if you look southeast. I’m not a big fan of constellations. Most don’t look anything like their names imply; some are quite obscure; and many simply can’t be seen in typical suburban skies these days. **Scorpius** is an exception. It looks like the Scorpion of its name – a truly beautiful constellation. What’s more, many of its brighter stars actually do hang out together – they are not just an accident of our line of sight.

It dominates our southeastern sky in July, just as the **Summer Triangle** – a terrific asterism, dominates our eastern sky this month. And we have two fascinating new “guide” stars – the intriguingly close and rapidly spinning **Altair** – and the incredibly huge and red **Antares** that is right at the heart of the Scorpion! Let’s take a look at the chart first, then examine these stars along with their quaint little companion, a very real looking **teapot** complete with “steam” coming out of its spout! Wow! Summer nights may be short, but they sure offer some nice visual treats!

For a printer-friendly version of this chart, click here.

First up is the **Summer Triangle** – it’s an asterism that you can’t miss and will grace our evening skies right up into early winter. If you’ve been following for a few months, you’ve already met its lead star, brilliant **Vega**. And last month we were introduced to** Deneb** on the other corner. In fact, we saw that we could make a quite impressive Northern Triangle out of Deneb, Vega, and Polaris. But better known than that asterism is the **Summer Triangle** shown above of **Vega, Deneb, and Altair.**

Altair is hard to miss. It is the brightest star low in the east early on a July evening, but it is also distinctive because it has two reasonably bright companions, close on either side,that form a straight line with it. This is appropriate because it’s not hard to see Altair and those two companions as representing an eagle in flight, and that’s good because they are the major stars in a constellation known as **Aquilla, the Eagle**.

Altair is white, much like Deneb and Vega, and is even closer to us than Vega. Vega is 25 light years away, Altair just 16. That’s in contrast to Deneb, which you may recall is an astounding 1,425 light years from us – astounding because even at that distance it is almost as bright as its much closer companions. Altair also distinguishes itself by spinning incredibly fast. It takes our Sun almost a month to complete a rotation on its axis. Altair, almost twice as large as our Sun, spins once on its axis in just 10 hours. Why, I don’t know, but it’s one more reminder of how these stars, which all look pretty much the same to us because they’re so far away, all have their special traits that distinguish them as individuals.

The most obvious special trait for **Antares**, our other guide star this month, is its redness – and it’s one of only four guide stars that is quite close to the ecliptic – the path of the planets. That means that reddish Mars comes close, sometimes, to reddish Antares, and that’s appropriate because the name “Antares” actually means “like Mars.” However, science tells us something else about Antares. It is huge. I mean BIG.

Get out your calculator and do a little simple math. (OK, I’ll put the answers at the bottom of this post, but really – this is simple, and I think you would appreciate the size much more if you did the calculations yourself rather than have me tell you.)

So try this. Start with something manageable, like the Earth. It’s about 8,000 miles in diameter and that’s a number that’s fairly easy to imagine. Let’s reduce Earth to a ball 2 inches in diameter. That gives it a radius of 1 inch.

Now let’s make a scale model Sun to go with our Earth. That’s easy. The radius of the Sun is 109 times the radius of the Earth. That means the Sun will have a radius of 109 inches – roughly 9 feet. My problem is,** these linear measures don’t give us a good sense of the size difference**. We need to visualize in terms of volume. We can approximate volume by simply cubing the radius and multiplying it by 4. If we do this for our scale model Earth we have 1 x 1 x 1 x 4 – or four cubic inches. Now calculate the volume of our scale Sun – in cubic inches, Just multiply 109 x 109 x 109, then multiply that by 4. Wow! Well, I hope you said “Wow!”

The Sun is 109 times the diameter of the Earth – which to me doesn’t sound like much, but in volume it is – well, you’ve done the calculation. (Or look for the answer at the bottom of the post if you haven’t.)

Now let’s do a similar exercise with Antares. Antares has a radius more than 800 times the Sun. Do the math. Our scale model Sun is 9 feet – our scale model Antares will have a diameter in feet of 9 x 800. Man, that’s big. (Just remind yourself that a mile is 5,280-feet.) Don’t bother to calculate the volume. Unless you use scientific notation, your calculator probably won’t handle it. But you get the idea. That little dot of red light we call Antares is big. And don’t forget – on this same scale the huge planet you are standing on is just 2-inches in diameter. Compare that to your calculation regarding Antares!

Here’s a graphic representation courtesy of Sakurambo:

Notice the artist didn’t even attempt to represent the Earth on this scale!

Think of it this way. If Antares were our star, both the Earth and Mars would be orbiting inside it!

That’s huge – even bigger than Deneb – which we noted last month was a “supergiant” – the same class that Antares belongs in. But Deneb would only reach about halfway to Earth – Antares would go past both Earth and Mars. Deneb, however, is a very young, very bright, very hot star, which is why it shines so brightly from such a great distance. Antares is much closer – about 600 light years vs 1,425 for Deneb. But Antares is old – a star in its dying stages, and is large and bright because it is so bloated. It really is quite cool as stars go – that’s why it appears red to us. But it has such a huge surface area that even from a distance of 600 light years it appears bright to us – a bit brighter in our sky than Deneb, actually.

So let’s briefly consider these four guide stars together – Vega is our “standard” star – white, about the size of the Sun, and quite close at 25 light years. Altair has some unusual features, but is still rather normal as stars go. Deneb is distinguished by being large and hot; Antares by being even larger, but relatively cool.

#### Vital stats for Altair (AL-tair), also known as Alpha **Aquilae**:

• Brilliance: Magnitude .77; its luminosity is the equal of 11 Suns.

• Distance:16.8 light years

• Spectral Types: A, main sequence

• Position: 19h:50m:47s, +08°:52′:06″

#### Vital stats for Antares (an-TAIR-ease), also known as Alpha Scorpii:

• Brilliance: Magnitude 1.09; its luminosity is the equal of 65,000 Suns.

• Distance: 600 light years

• Spectral Types: M, supergiant

• Position: 16h:29m:24s, -26°:25′:55″

Calculator answers:1.Now calculate the volume of our scale Sun – in cubic inches, Just multiply 109 x 109 x 109, then multiply that by 4. Wow! Well, I hope you said “wow!” The answer is 5,180,116 cubic inches – compared to 4 cubic inches for the Earth,

2. To really drive the difference home, divide 5,180,116 by 4 – that gives 1,295,029. So when seen as a volume, you could fit almost 1.3 million Earths inside the Sun.

3. Our scale model Sun is 9 feet – our scale model Antares will have a diameter in feet of 9 x 800 – 7.200 feet or 1.36 miles – so you’re comparing 9 feet with 1.36 miles – and that’s simply the linear diameter. In volume, Antares would be as much larger than the Sun, as the sun is to the Earth – roughly 1.3 million times the volume. That’s a lot of space to be occupied by one of nature’s nuclear reactors.

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