For several years we have been working on the development of a computational fluid dynamics ballistics code called FREIN. This code is the result of a strong cooperation between Nexter Munitions and the University of Poitiers. In the last years, efforts have been carried out to improve the 3D modeling. In a fully unsteady way, the interior, intermediate and exterior ballistics were modeled as well as the weapon system environment. The complex phenomena encountered are investigated by an adapted numerical simulation approach using the Euler equations for two immiscible gases. The method involves moving bodies with respect to fixed Cartesian meshes and the aerodynamic forces are used to compute the trajectories. In this paper, theoretical developments and computations have been applied mainly to the simulation of the firing of an advanced 120 mm lightweight tank demonstrator. In comparison with firing experiments, first computation validation results concerning interior ballistics, muzzle brake flow, sabot discard and blast wave propagation and reflection are presented and are very satisfactory.

References

References
1.
Abgrall
,
R.
, and
Karni
,
S.
, 2001, “
Computation of Compressible Multifluids
,”
J. Comput. Phys.
,
169
, pp.
594
623
.
2.
Aftosmis
,
M. J.
, 1997, “
Solution Adaptative Cartesian Grid Methods for Aerodynamic Flows with Complex Geometries
,”
Proc. 28th Computational Fluid Dynamics (Lecture Series 1997-02)
,
von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics
,
Rhode-St-Genese, Belgium
.
3.
Berger
,
M. J.
, and
Collela
,
P.
, 1989, “
Local Adaptative Mesh Refinement for Shock Hydrodynamics
,”
J. Comput. Phys., Elsevier
, Vol.
82
, No.
1
, pp.
64
84
.
4.
Champigny
,
P.
d’Espiney
,
P.
, and
Ceroni
,
D.
, 1998, “
Computation of Sabot Discard Using Chimera Technique
,”
Proc. 17th International Symposium on Ballistics
,
Midrand, South Africa
, Vol.
2
, pp.
113
120
.
5.
Dietrich
,
F.
Guillen
,
Ph.
, and
Cayzac
,
R.
, 2003, “
A Flight Mechanics/Aerodynamics Coupling Methodology for Projectiles
,”
Proc. 41st AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting & Exhibit
,
Reno, NV
, AIAA Paper 0029.
6.
Drew
,
D. A.
, 1983, “
Mathematical Modeling of Two-Phase Flow
,”
Ann. Rev. Fluid. Mech.
,
15
, pp.
261
291
.
7.
Ferry
,
E. N.
Sahu
,
J.
, and
Heavy
,
K. R.
, 1996, “
Navier-Stokes Computations of Sabot Discard Using Chimera Scheme
,”
Proc. 16th International Ballistics Symposium and Exhibition
,
San Francisco, CA
, Vol.
2
, pp.
13
22
.
8.
Forrer
,
H.
, 1996, “
Second Order Accurate Boundary Treatment for Cartesian Grid Methods
,”
Seminar f¨ur Angewandte Mathematic, ETH Züurich
, ETH Research Report No. 96-13.
9.
Gough
,
P. S.
, and
Zwarts
,
F. J.
, 1979, “
Modeling Heterogeneous Two-Phase Reacting Flow
,”
AIAA J.
,
17
(
1
), pp.
17
25
.
10.
Kim
,
S.
,
Kim
,
C.
,
Rho
,
O.
, and
K. Hong
,
S.
, 2003, “
Cure for the Shock Instability: Development of a Shock-Stable Roe Scheme
,”
J. Comput. Phys.
,
185
, pp.
342
374
.
11.
Liska
,
R.
, and
Wendroff
,
B.
, 2003, “
Comparison of Several Difference Schemes on 1D and 2D Test Problems for the Euler Equations
,”
SIAM J. Sci. Comput. (USA)
,
25
(
3
), pp.
995
1017
.
12.
Mulder
,
W.
,
Osher
,
S.
, and
Sethian
,
J.
, 1992, “
Computing Interface Motion in Compressible Gas Dynamics
,”
J. Comput. Phys.
,
100
, pp.
209
228
.
13.
Murman
,
S. M.
,
Aftosmis
,
M. J.
, and
Berger
,
M. J.
, 2003, “
Implicit Approaches for Moving Boundaries in a 3-D Cartesian Method
,”
Proc. 41st AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting
,
Reno, NV
, AIAA Paper-2003-1119.
14.
Pokharna
,
H.
,
Mori
,
M.
, and
Ransom
,
V.
, 1997, “
Regularization of Two-Phase Flow Models: A Comparison of Numerical and Differential Approaches
,”
J. Comput. Phys.
,
134
, pp.
282
295
.
15.
Roe
,
P. L.
, 1981, “
Approximate Riemann Solvers, Parameter Vectors and Difference
,”
J. Comput. Phys
,
43
, pp.
357
372
.
16.
Sainsaulieu
,
L.
, 1995, “
Finite Volume Approximation of Two-Phase Fluid Flows Based on an Approximate Roe-Type Riemann Solver
,”
J. Comput. Phys.
,
121
, pp.
1
28
.
17.
Stewart
,
H. B.
, and
Wendroff
,
B.
, 1984, “
Two-Phase Flow: Models and Methods
,”
J. Comput. Phys
,
56
, pp.
363
409
.
18.
Yang
,
G.
,
Causon
,
D. M.
,
Ingram
,
D. M.
,
Saunders
,
R.
, and
Batten
,
P.
, 1997, “
A Cartesian Cut Cell Method for Compressible Flows. Part A: Static Body Problem
,”
Aeronaut. J.
,
101
, pp.
57
65
.
19.
Yang
,
G.
,
Causon
,
D. M.
, and
Ingram
,
D. M.
, 1997, “
Calculation of 3D Compressible Flows Around Moving Bodies
,”
Proc. 21st International Symp. on Shock Waves
,
Great Keppel Island, Australia
, Paper No. 1780.
20.
Klingenberg
,
K.
, and
Heimerl
,
J. M.
, 1992, “
Gun Muzzle Blast and Flash
,”
Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics
, Vol.
139
, pp.
107
165
.
21.
Alziary de Roquefort
,
T.
Cayzac
,
R.
, and
Carette
,
E.
, 2007, “
Balistique Intermédiaire pour des Projectiles Flèche
,”
Proc. 42nd Colloque d’Aérodynamique Appliquée
,
AAAF
,
Nice, France
.
22.
Cayzac
,
R.
,
Mennechet
,
A.
, and
Carette
,
E.
, 1995, “
Sources of Dispersion Occuring with APFSDS Launch Dynamics
,”
Proc. 15th International Symposium on Ballistics
,
Jerusalem, Israel
, Vol.
3
, pp.
265
273
.
23.
Cayzac
,
R.
,
Vaglio
,
C.
,
Brossard
,
J.
,
Carette
,
E.
, and
Alziary de Roquefort
,
T.
, 1996, “
Transitional Ballistic Investigations
,”
Proc. 47th Aeroballistic Range Association Meeting
,
ISL
,
Saint-Louis, France
.
24.
Cayzac
,
R.
,
Vaglio
,
C.
,
Brossard
,
J.
,
Carette
,
E.
, and
Alziary de Roquefort
,
T.
, 1998, “
Intermediate Ballistic Computations and Comparison with Firing Tests
,”
Proc. 17th International Symposium on Ballistics
,
Midrand, South Africa
, Vol.
2
, pp.
1
8
.
25.
Boisson
,
D.
,
Cayzac
,
R.
, and
Légeret
,
G.
, 1999, “
Study of the Heat Exchanges Occuring During the Cooling Phase in a Gun Barrel – Validation
,”
Proc. 18th International Symposium on Ballistics
,
San Antonio, TX
.
26.
Boisson
,
D.
,
Cayzac
,
R.
, and
Légeret
,
G.
, 2000, “
Study of the Gas Discharge and the Heat Exchanges Occuring in a Gun Barrel After the Projectile Leaves the Barrel – Validation for the 30 mm Gun
,”
Proc. European Forum on Ballistics of Projectiles
,
Institute Saint Louis
,
Saint Louis, France
, pp.
129
135
.
27.
Cayzac
,
R.
, and
Carette
,
E.
, 2000, “
Intermediate Ballistics and Aeroballistics Overview
,”
Proc. European Forum on Ballistics of Projectiles
,
Institute Saint Louis
,
Saint Louis, France
, pp.
259
274
.
28.
Cayzac
,
R.
,
Carette
,
E.
, and
Alziary de Roquefort
,
T.
, 2001, “
Intermediate Ballistic Unsteady Sabot Separation: Computations and Validations
,”
Proc. 19th International Symposium on Ballistics
,
Interlaken, Switzerland
, Vol.
1
, pp.
297
305
.
29.
Cayzac
,
R.
,
Carette
,
E.
,
Alziary de Roquefort
,
T.
,
Bidorini
,
P.
,
Bret
,
E.
,
Delusier
,
P.
, and
Secco
,
S.
, 2005, “
Unsteady Intermediate Ballistics: 2D and 3D CFD Modeling, Applications to Sabot Separation and Blast Behaviour
,”
Proc. 22nd International Symposium on Ballistics
,
Vancouver, Canada
, Vol.
1
, pp.
398
404
.
30.
Kurbatskii
,
A. K.
,
Montanari
,
F.
,
Cler
,
D. L.
, and
Doxbeck
,
M.
, 2007, “
Numerical Blast Wave Identification and Tracking Using Solution-Based Mesh Adaptation Approach
,”
Proc. 18th AIAA Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference
,
Miami, FL
, AIAA Paper No. 2007-4188.
31.
Cayzac
,
R.
,
Carette
,
E.
, and
Alziary de Roquefort
,
T.
, 2008, “
3D Unsteady Intermediate Ballistics Modeling: Muzzle Brake and Sabot Separation
,”
Proc. 24th International Symposium on Ballistics
,
New Orleans, LA
, Vol.
1
, pp.
399
405
.
32.
Cayzac
,
R.
,
Carette
,
E.
,
Alziary de Roquefort
,
T.
,
Renard
,
F. X.
,
Roux
,
D.
,
Patry
,
J. N.
, and
Balbo
,
P.
, 2010, “
Advanced 120 mm Lightweight Tank Demonstrator: Direct Modeling of the Interior, Intermediate and Exterior Ballistics as Well as the Weapon System Environment
,”
Proc. 25th International Symposium on Ballistics
,
Beijing, China
, Vol.
1
, pp.
505
511
.
You do not currently have access to this content.