Transverse impact response of a linear elastic Kevlar® KM2 fiber yarn was determined at various striking speeds from Hopkinson bar and gas gun experiments incorporated with high-speed photography techniques. Upon transverse impact, a triangle shape was formed in the fiber yarn. Both longitudinal and transverse waves were produced and propagated outwards the fiber yarn. Both the angle of the triangle and Euler transverse wave speed vary with striking speeds. The relationship between the Euler transverse wave speed and the striking speed was determined. The transverse impact response of the fiber yarn was also analyzed with a model, which agrees well with the experimental results. The model shows that the longitudinal wave speed is critical in the ballistic performance of the fiber yarn. At a certain striking speed, a higher longitudinal wave speed produces a higher Euler transverse wave speed, enabling us to spread the load and dissipate the impact energy faster, such that the ballistic performance of the fiber yarn is improved.

References

References
1.
David
,
N. V.
,
Gao
,
X.-L.
, and
Zheng
,
J. Q.
, 2009, “
Ballistic Resistant Body Armor: Contemporary and Prospective Materials and Related Protection Mechanisms
,”
ASME Appl. Mech. Rev.
,
62
, p.
050802
.
2.
Tabiei
,
A.
, and
Nilakantan
,
G.
, 2008, “
Ballistic Impact of Dry Woven Fabric Composites: A Review
,”
ASME Appl. Mech. Rev.
,
61
, p.
010801
.
3.
Cheng
,
M.
,
Chen
,
W.
, and
Weerasooriya
,
T.
, 2005, “
Mechanical Properties of Kevlar® KM2 Single Fiber
,”
J. Eng. Mater. Technol.
,
127
, pp.
197
203
.
4.
Lim
,
J.
,
Chen
,
W. N. W.
, and
Zheng
,
J. Q.
, 2010, “
Dynamic Small Strain Measurements of Kevlar® 129 Single Fibers with a Miniatured Tension Kolsky Bar
,”
Polym. Test.
,
29
, pp.
701
705
.
5.
Kim
,
J.
,
McDonough
,
W. G.
,
Blair
,
W.
, and
Holmes
,
G. A.
, 2008, “
The Modified-Single Fiber Test: A Methodology for Monitoring Ballistic Performance
,”
J. Appl. Polym. Sci.
,
108
, pp.
876
886
.
6.
Wilde
,
A. F.
,
Ricca
,
J. J.
,
Rogers
,
J. M.
, and
Cole
,
L. M.
, 1972, “
Breaking Energies of a Nylon Series Subjected to High-Speed Transverse Impact
,”
Polym. Eng. Sci.
,
12
, pp.
41
47
.
7.
Im
,
J.
,
Percha
,
P. A
., and
Yeakle
,
D. S.
, 1989, “
Some Physical and Mechanical Properties of PBO Fiber
,”
Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.
,
134
, pp.
307
312
.
8.
Wang
,
L.
, 2007,
Foundations of Stress Waves
,
Elsevier
,
Oxford
.
9.
Parga-Landa
,
B.
, and
Hernández-Olivares
,
F.
, 1995, “
An Analytical Model to Predict Impact Behaviour of Soft Armors
,”
Int. J. Impact Eng.
,
16
, pp.
455
466
.
10.
Cole
,
J. D.
,
Dougherty
,
C. B.
, and
Huth
,
J. H.
, 1953, “
Constant-Strain Waves in Strings
,”
J. Appl. Mech.
,
20
, pp.
519
522
.
11.
Smith
,
J. C.
,
McCrackin
,
F. L.
,
Schiefer
,
H. F.
,
Stone
,
W. K.
, and
Towne
,
K. M.
, 1956, “
Stress-Strain Relationships in Yarns Subjected to Rapid Impact Loading: Part IV: Transverse Impact Tests
,”
Text. Res. J.
,
26
, pp.
821
828
.
12.
Smith
,
J. C.
,
McCrackin
,
F. L.
, and
Schiefer
,
H. F.
, 1958, “
Stress-Strain Relationships in Yarns Subjected to Rapid Impact Loading: Part V: Wave Propagation in Long Textile Yarns Impacted Transversely
,”
Text. Res. J.
,
28
, pp.
288
302
.
13.
Smith
,
J. C.
,
Blandford
,
J. M.
, and
Schiefer
,
H. F.
, 1960, “
Stress-Strain Relationships in Yarns Subjected to Rapid Impact Loading: Part VI: Velocities of Strain Waves Resulting From Impact
,”
Text. Res. J.
,
30
, pp.
752
760
.
14.
Vinson
,
J. R.
, and
Zukas
,
J. A.
, 1975, “
On the Ballistic Impact of Textile Body Armor
,”
J. Appl. Mech.
,
42
, pp.
263
268
.
15.
Roylance
,
D.
,
Wilde
,
A.
, and
Tocci
,
G.
, 1973, “
Ballistic Impact of Textile Structures
,”
Text. Res. J.
,
43
, pp.
34
41
.
16.
Roylance
,
D.
, 1977, “
Ballistics of Transversely Impacted Fibers
,”
Text. Res. J.
,
47
, pp.
679
684
.
17.
Field
,
J. E.
, and
Sun
,
Q.
, 1990, “
A High Speed Photographic Study of Impact on Fibers and Woven Fabrics
,”
SPIE 19th International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics
,
1358
, pp.
703
712
.
18.
Wang
,
L.
,
Field
,
J. E.
, and
Sun
,
Q.
, 1990,
“Dynamic Behaviour of Pre-Stressed High Strength Polymeric Yarns Transversely Impacted by a Blade,”
Proceedings of 2nd International Symposium on Intense Dynamic Loading and Its Effects
,
G.
Zhang
and
S.
Huang
, eds.,
Chendu
,
China
, June 9–12, pp.
354
359
.
You do not currently have access to this content.