The existing plasticity models recognize that ratchetting direction strongly depends on the loading path, the stress amplitude, and the mean stresses, but their predictions deviate from experiments for a number of materials. We propose an Armstrong-Frederick type hardening rule utilizing the concept of a limiting surface for the backstresses. The model predicts long-term ratchetting rate decay as well as constant ratchetting rate for both proportional and nonproportional loadings. To represent the transient behavior, the model encompasses a memory surface in the deviatoric stress space which recalls the maximum stress level of the prior loading history. The coefficients in the hardening rule, varying as a function of the accumulated plastic strain, serve to represent the cyclic hardening or softening. The stress level effect on ratchetting and non-Masing behavior are realized with the size of the introduced memory surface. Simulations with the model checked favorably with nonproportional multiaxial experiments which are outlined in Part 2 of this paper.

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