Solutions to simple, plane-strain sheet-metal forming problems are developed using an exact solution to the membrane equilibrium equations and apre-integrated version of the plasticity equations. This approach allows the numerical errors to be driven to very low levels in an economical manner. Both stretch and draw conditions are considered, and solutions are presented for several problems which have been proposed as benchmarks for sheet-metal forming computer programs. The simplicity of this approach allows us to calculate formulas for the sensitivity of the solutions to process parameters. It is demonstrated that draw problems can exhibit very strong dependencies on parameters, especially drawbead restraint force.

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