We developed engineering models that predict forces and penetration depth for long, rigid rods with spherical noses and rate-independent, strain-hardening targets. The spherical cavity expansion approximation simplified the target analysis, so we obtained closed-form penetration equations that showed the geometric and material scales. To verify our models, we conducted terminal-ballistic experiments with three projectile geometries made of maraging steel and 6061-T651 aluminum targets. The models predicted penetration depths that were in good agreement with the data for impact velocities between 0.3 and 1.0 km/s.

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