Experiments have examined the waveforms generated by a flap-type wave maker in a moving, three-layer fluid. Results show that the observed modulating waveforms could be predicted accurately for low frequencies and that if the two interfaces are sufficiently close together, both mode-one waves (whose amplitude vary in the vertical such that there is only one maximum) and mode-two waves (with a vertical amplitude structure that contains two relative maxima) are generated of similar amplitude. This results in downstream shifts from sinuous to varicose modes of oscillation.
The Generation of Internal Gravity Waves in a Multilayered Moving Fluid by a Flap-Type Wave Maker
Mu¨ller, M. R., and Shang, P. C. (June 1, 1985). "The Generation of Internal Gravity Waves in a Multilayered Moving Fluid by a Flap-Type Wave Maker." ASME. J. Appl. Mech. June 1985; 52(2): 247–252. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3169035
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