Creep data of 2618-T61 aluminum alloy under multistep multiaxial proportional loadings at 200°C (392°F) are reported. Two viscoplastic flow rules were developed using constant stress creep and creep recovery data. One was based on the accumulated strain (isotropic strain hardening), and the other on a tensorial state varible (kinematic hardening). Data were represented by two models: a nonrecoverable viscoplastic model, and a viscous-viscoelastic model in which the time-dependent strain was resolved into recoverable (viscoelastic) and nonrecoverable components. The modified superposition principle was used to predict the viscoelastic strain component under variable stress states. The experiments showed that the viscous-viscoelastic model with either isotropic strain hardening or kinematic hardening gave very good predictions of the material responses. Isotropic strain hardening was best in some step-down stress states. The viscoelastic component accounted for not only the recovery strain but also the transient creep strain upon reloadings and step-up loadings.

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