The author discusses: (a) Mesnager’s theorem of isoclinics, (b) the characteristic curve of tangential stresses across a section of symmetry, (c) a formula for the maximum tangential stresses for the case of a central circular hole between fields of pure tension, (d) the slope of the p curve at a point corresponding to a cupic point, (e) recent improvement in the determination of free boundary stresses, and (f) formulas for the position of cupic points for two cases. A new method for the determination of the principal stresses across sections of symmetry from photoelastic data is illustrated with three examples: (1) Bars in tension or compression with central circular holes, (2) grooved beams in bending, and (3) rings or disks with circular central holes subjected to two concentrated diametral loads.

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