A hierarchical family of early-time, high-frequency asymptotic, surface interaction approximations is derived for a structure submerged in an infinite acoustic fluid. Kirchhoff’s retarded-potential integro-differential formulation is used as exact source formula. The well-known plane-wave and curved-wave approximations result as the first two members of the hierarchy. Acoustic impedance characteristics of the first four members are exhibited for several sample geometries.

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