Abstract

The authors present a method for the numerical computation of the end forces and couples in a three-dimensional pipe line. The method takes care of a pipe line with any number of straight parts connected by bends. A procedure of computation is also shown when parts of the pipe line are skewed. The ends of the line may be partially or completely constrained against rotation and translation. A construction for the analysis of stresses in the pipe bends is given. The method is illustrated by a sample computation of the end forces and couples in a steam main which is restrained against thermal expansion.

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