Out-of-plane strains and stresses are determined using reciprocity for the central region of very long bars (approaching infinite length) of uniform transverse cross section subjected to the same in-plane loads on every cross section. The loading explicitly specifies no end loads on the bars. The results are obtained without recourse to the in-plane solution. Conversely the end force and moment are determined for the case where the out-of-plane strain is zero.

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