In the radial motion of an elastic cylindrical shell following impulsive pressure all round, imperfections in the uniformity can cause development of flexure through interaction of (fluctuating) circumferential force with flexural curvature. Flexural modes of rather high order (several nodes in the circumference) can be strongly excited, especially those having a frequency one half that of the breathing mode (nonlinear autoparametric excitation). Almost all the original energy can be transferred, over a number of cycles, from the breathing mode to one or two high flexural modes.

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