Freudenstein’s approximate synthesis of planar four-bar linkages is generalized to spatial linkages, and the conditions under which this generalization is applicable are expressed. Three cases of synthesis of spatial linkages to generate functions of one variable between nonparallel axes are considered in detail: (a) The spherical four-bar linkage; (b) a variation of the four-bar linkage in which two turning pairs are replaced by ball-and-socket joints, a linkage which may be designed to generate arbitrary functions with up to seven accuracy points; and (c) a second variation of the four-bar linkage where three turning pairs are replaced by cylinder pairs, a linkage capable of being designed to generate a variable-pitch helical motion with three accuracy points.

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