Abstract

In the calendering, or rolling, of a plastic material in to sheet form by passing it between parallel rolls, hydrostatic pressure is exerted against the surface of the roll throughout the region of contact with the plastic mass. This pressure has been measured by means of a pressure-sensitive cylinder, inserted in the body of a 10-in-diam roll, together with high-speed oscillographic technique. The materials which were calendered consisted of a resin which exhibited flow properties characteristic of a viscous liquid, and several filled plastic compositions of commercial interest. Pressure maxima ranging up to 8000 psi were observed. Comparison of experimental results with theoretical expressions for pressure distribution, as given by several authors, indicates that the equation derived by Gaskell quite satisfactorily predicts the results for the case of the viscous liquid. The commercial plastics were found to exhibit pressure-distribution characteristics which were perceptibly different from those of the viscous liquid. Certain limitations of Gaskell’s treatment of nonviscous materials prevent its application to these experimental results.

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